5 Must-use Exercises for Teaching ESL Modal Verbs
What do Bob Marley, The Clash and Mary J. Blige have in common?
When Bob Marley sang “Could you be loved?” he was using modal verbs.
The Clash did the same with the immortal line, “Should I stay or should I go?”
Mary J. Blige gave modals a more informal spin on her song titled, “Shoulda, Woulda, Coulda.”
Modal verbs aren’t just in some of our favorite songs. They’re all around us. That means there’s lots of inspiration for you to teach them. Instead of sticking to boring old grammar drills, you can take real-life scenarios to teach modal verbs the fun way.
The Many Uses of Modal Verbs
Modal verbs are incredibly versatile and are used for several different functions in the English language. This is why they’re absolutely essential for your students. Here are just some of the things they’re used for:
- Permission: Modal verbs like “can,” “could” and “may” are all used for giving or asking for permission. You can use these to teach your students how to construct polite questions.
- Prohibition: They can be used in the opposite way too. Students can use words like “can’t” and “mustn’t” to set rules and boundaries or give orders.
- Advice: Modal verbs don’t always have to make such strong sentences. They can be used in softer ways as well. “Should,” “ought to” and “had better” are all good ways for giving advice.
- Obligation: If you tell your students that they “need to do their homework” and “must come to class on time,” they’ll understand that these are obligations, and things they have no choice in.
- No obligation: Modal verbs can be used to express lack of obligation too. For example, you don’t have to come up with your own activities when FluentU has them all for you!
5 Must-use Exercises for Teaching ESL Modal Verbs
Grammar lessons don’t have to be boring or tedious. With these ESL activities, you can make them fun! That way, students will pick up modal verbs more easily. Here are five activities so fun that students will forget they’re even learning!
1. Give Me a Sign
This exercise is great for teaching how to use modal verbs for prohibition and obligation. It uses real-life examples that students see around them every day, so they should have no problem picking up the grammar and putting it into context.
Start by showing or drawing a picture of a no smoking sign to your class and asking them what it means. If they say “no smoking,” ask them to elaborate with a full sentence. This should elicit “you can’t smoke,” or something to that effect.
Then, ask your students how they could make the sentence stronger. This should prompt them to give you “you must not smoke.”
From here, you can teach a selection of modal verbs, such as “have to,” “must” and “mustn’t.”
Create a worksheet or PowerPoint presentation which provides a selection of signs. These could be road signs, safety signs or signs you might find in the classroom. Keep them simple and easy to understand. Remember, these should be signs that they’re familiar with already, they just need to put their meanings into English. They can use the given modal verbs to write sentences for each one.
To finish up the class, move on to something more fun and more challenging. Give out a selection of weird and wacky signs, such as this one from the Travel Channel.
Students will have to get creative with their modal verbs to decide what they mean, and can work in pairs to write their own ideas. At the end, you can go over their answers together, and correct their grammar as you go along.
2. Agony Aunts
In order to practice using modal verbs for advice, your students can try their hands at being agony aunts.
To open up the topic, tell your students that you have a problem you want them to help you with. This can be something as simple as “I’m hungry” or “I don’t know what to do this weekend.” Ask them to give you some advice. Once they do, work with them to flesh it out into a full sentence. You can do this by writing a gap fill on the board, such as “You ____ go to a restaurant.”
Use this to elicit the following responses:
- Ought to
- Had better
Then, students can practice giving advice with these words. You can either give them example problems to answer or have them write some of their own. The best choice for you will depend on the skill level of your class, as well as the amount of time you have. This could be a writing or conversation lesson, depending on how you structure it.
3. Fortune Tellers
Students can try predicting the future by role playing as fortune tellers. This is a great way to practice using “will,” “may” and “might.”
There are two ways you can approach this topic. The first is to use palm reading. Busy Teacher has a great palm reading lesson plan. Combine this with One Stop English’s palm reading worksheet, and your students can learn what the lines on their hands mean. Then, they can use this knowledge to pair up, read their partner’s palm and use modal verbs to make predictions about their future.
Here are some examples of sentences they could use:
“Your ‘life line’ is long, so you will have a long and healthy life.”
“Your ‘love line’ is curved, so you will have a successful love life.”
The second way to do it is by using tarot cards. Print out ISL Collective’s tarot cards for ESL classes, cut them up and give them out to students in pairs. Once your students have learned how to use the modal verbs, they can draw three cards at a time and use them to make predictions about their partners.
4. Guess the Job
Kick off this activity by having students brainstorm a list of jobs. Once they’ve done that, ask them to tell you the responsibilities of a teacher. You can use their answers to teach them how to use the following modal verbs:
- Have to
- Don’t have to
They can construct sentences like “you must take care of students,” “you don’t have to wear a uniform” and “you mustn’t be late for class.” After that, direct them back to the lists they made earlier and have them write similar sentences for the jobs they wrote down. In pairs, students can then discuss their own jobs using modal verbs.
To wrap up, turn it into a guessing game. Ask each student to choose a job without telling their partner what it is. They can use modal verbs to describe the job and their partner can guess the job.
5. Shall We?
Suggestions are another function that modal verbs are used for. This simple activity will get your students comfortable with making them on their own. It’s great for lower levels because the language is basic, there’s only one modal verb to focus on and the activity has a rigid structure.
Start the class by asking students to talk in pairs about what their hobbies are. This should be easy for most students. After a few minutes of discussion, pick one example from the class. Then, ask how they would invite someone to join them in that activity.
For example, if the activity is football, they might say “Do you want to play football with me?”
Use this to elicit a simpler way to give suggestions, “Shall we…?” Then, show the students how to give some short responses.
Give out cards with different scenarios on each one. Every time a student picks one, they have to use it to make a sentence with “shall we” or “shall I.” For example, if their card says “it’s hot in here,” a student can answer with “Shall I open a window?”
If your students find this too easy, you can then do away with the cards and have them come up with prompts on their own.
You can give your students some examples on FluentU. For example, the video clip “A Tiring Trip” shows “shall we” in use naturally, with pretty slow speech that even beginners can follow.
Even with fast speech, students can keep up thanks to FluentU’s option to pause the video to check the translation of any word in the subtitles. You can also replay certain sentences several times to help students practice specific sentence constructions or modal verbs.
FluentU is a way to make the lessons more engaging, too: Instead of going over the same workbook exercises, vocabulary drills and grammar problems, students can learn English through video clips of popular movies and TV shows, pop songs, animated shows, news broadcasts and more.
With FluentU, students don’t just memorize English words—they learn the context in which they’re used, helping them speak more naturally as a result.
Make Your Modal Lessons Fun
Ask any student what the most difficult thing about learning English is and they’re bound to say “grammar.” Teaching English made me realize just how hard it is to learn, with so many tenses and grammar structures that I’d never considered before. Learning these aspects of the language can be tedious, but it doesn’t have to be. Make it entertaining and students will pick up the material much more easily. Use these activities to keep your classes fresh and interesting.