french-suffixes

Suffixer-upper: 12 French Suffixes to Upgrade Your French

Imagine you possess a sleek, modern living space.

Your day-to-day existence feels smooth and effortless.

You have everything decorated the way you want.

You have all the appliances and furniture you need.

Having the right tools and organization to build and synthesize your French vocabulary can make your French learning feel this way.

While the French language is full of exceptions (and a plethora of tenses and moods to choose from), it’s also full of shortcuts.

With the help of the memory palace technique, for example, you can not only house your French vocabulary in a space that feels comfortable and familiar, you can harness the power of mnemonic devices and quickly build up your word and phrase knowledge.

Learn the building blocks of French sentence structure, and you’re well on your way to becoming the next Stendhal.

But I’m getting ahead of myself. Back to building blocks. French words can be comprised of roots, prefixes and suffixes.

Today, we’re gonna talk about suffixes! I like to think of suffixes as a shortcut to un vocabulaire grandissime (an extremely big vocabulary).

Are you with me?

What Are Suffixes, and Why Learn French Ones?

  • A suffix is an affix (something added on) that comes after the stem of a word. Stems, or root words, are the basis for forming new words. In French, suffixes are added to nouns, verbs or adjectives.
  • French suffixes, for the most part, originate from Latin or Greek. The same goes for English suffixes. You’ll therefore notice that, aside from a minor variation in spelling, many French and English suffixes are the same.
  • Suffixes are like linguistic time-savers. They allow you to boil down what would otherwise be a multi-word phrase into a single word. For example, it’s much less of a mouthful to say une poissonnerie (a fish market) than un endroit où se trouve du poisson en vente (a place where one finds fish for sale). Did someone just say “shortcut”? On top of that, learning French suffixes allows you to build your vocabulary quickly, which means you’ll be well on your way to fluency.
  • Suffixes allow you to become a better vocabulary detective. Indeed, by learning a wide range of suffixes, you’ll be able to decode unfamiliar words much more easily (or at least, determine their parts of speech) when reading. Basically, your reading comprehension and writing will quickly improve once you learn more suffixes.

Now that you’ve been convinced, let’s see the suffixes! I’ve put together a list of common ones that you’re bound to come across no matter where you are in your French learning adventure.

On y va (let’s go)!

12 French Suffixes to Upgrade Your French

To see more instances of these suffixes, don’t forget to check out FluentU.

By watching these videos and following along with the interactive subtitles, you can see how French suffixes manifest in various contexts.

1. -able 

This suffix, which derives from the Latin abilis and can only be added to verbal stems (which is to say, verbs minus their -er, -ir or -re endings), denotes the possibility or ability to be done. It’s adjectival, which means that the resultant word is an adjective.

Example:

lav- + -able → lavable (washable)

Cette chemise est lavable à l’eau chaude. (This shirt can be washed in hot water.)

Note: Lav- is the verbal stem of the verb laver (to wash).

2. -age

-age, which originates from the Latin agere (to act) is most commonly used to form nouns which refer to the “action or result of X-ing” or the “state of being a(n) X.” Nouns that end in -age are masculine.

Example:

esclave (slave) + -age → esclavage (the state of being a slave, or more succinctly, slavery)

L’esclavage est horrible. (Slavery is horrible.)

3. -ain(e)/-ais(e)/-ois(e)/-éen(e)

This suffix can be added to nominal stems and it can either be used to form nominal and adjectival demonyms, which describe someone or something by their place of origin, or as a diminutive noun. The resulting word can either be a noun or an adjective, and the addition of an e means the noun or adjective is feminine.

Examples:

A person, place or thing from or in la Jamaïque (Jamaica) is jamaïcain(e) (Jamaican).

Il y a un nouveau restaurant jamaïcain dans le quartier. (There is a new Jamaican restaurant in the neighborhood.)

Note: Jamaïcain can also be spelled jamaïquain, although this spelling tends not to be as popular.

A person, place or thing from la France (France) is français(e) (French).

Sa femme est française. (His wife is French.)

J’ai une voiture française. (I have a French car.)

A person, place or thing from le Danemark (Denmark) is danois(e) (Danish). 

A person, place or thing from l’Europe (Europe) is européen(e) (European). 

4. -ateur/-atrice

This suffix, derived from the Latin ator (actor), is meant to signify actors or agents. It’s added to verbal stems. The resulting words can be nouns or adjectives. -ateur is used for masculine nouns or adjectives, while -atrice is used for feminine ones.

Examples:

Dévast- + -ateur → dévastateur (something that devastates or devastating, as in un ouragan dévastateur, or “a devastating hurricane”)

Elle a une maladie dévastatrice. (She has a devastating illness.)

Note: Dévast- is the stem of the verb dévaster (to devastate).

ventil- + -ateur → ventilateur (a fan)

J’ai besoin d’un ventilateur pour cette pièce. (I need a fan for this room.)

Note: Ventil- is the stem of the verb ventiler (to ventilate). In this word, we see the word vent (wind).

5. -eau/-elle

This suffix, which is added to nouns, has a diminutive function. -eau is used for masculine nouns and -elle is used for feminine ones.

Examples:

Un petit lapin (a little rabbit, as in a young one) can be condensed to un lapineau (a little rabbit).

Le lapineau a perdu sa mère. (The young rabbit lost its mother.)

Une petite rue (a little street) can be condensed to une ruelle (a little street or alley).

J’ai entendu un hurlement dans une ruelle. (I heard a scream in an alley.)

6.

As a suffix, the acute accent can perform many roles, such as…

Forming the past participle:

First (and dare I say foremost), this suffix is used to construct the past participle of -er verbs, where -é replaces the -er.

The past participle of manger (to eat) is mangé (ate).

J’ai mangé tard. (I ate late.)

La viande, mangée par les mouches, est dans la poubelle. (The meat, eaten by the flies, is in the trash.)

Forming adjectives: 

If the root is a noun, then the suffix  can be added to produce an adjective that signifies “possessing X” or “resembling X.”

Le sens refers to sense (as in common sense) or reason and so the adjective sensé refers to something or someone reasonable, or possessing sense/reason.

Ses propos sont sensés. (His remarks are reasonable.)

Forming nouns: 

The suffix  can be added to nouns to denote “the state of X.”

In French, un parent denotes not only a mother or a father, but a relative in general. La parenté refers to kinship, (family) relationship or relatedness.

Quel est ton lien de parenté avec elle ? (What is your relationship to her?)

7. -ée

This multipurpose suffix can be added to nouns or verbs to make new nouns, with different meanings.

“A __ful of something”:

Une poignée (a fistful) derives from un poing (a fist).

J’ai mangé une poignée de dates ce matin. (I ate a fistful of dates this morning.)

Result of an action, purpose:

Une donnée (a piece of data or information) derives from the verb donner (to give).

La société stocke ses données sur un serveur. (The company keeps its data on a server.)

A location:

Une entrée (an entrance) derives from the verb entrer (to enter).

L’entrée du bâtiment est ouverte. (The building’s entrance is open.)

Period of time:

Une matinée (the morning hours) derives from le matin (the morning).

J’ai lu toute la matinée. (I read all morning.)

8. -erie

This suffix, which derives from the Latin aria, eria and iria, is added to nominal stems to form nouns that denote “a speciality in X.” In many cases, -erie also denotes “a place that sells X.” The resulting nouns are feminine.

Examples:

Une poissonnerie (a fish market) is a place that specializes in or sells du poisson (fish).

J’ai acheté ce flet dans une poissonnerie. (I bought this flounder at the fish market.)

Une bijouterie (a jewelry store) is a place that specializes in or sells des bijoux (jewelry).

Jean a acheté un cadeau pour sa femme dans une bijouterie. (Jean bought a present for his wife at a jewelry store.)

9. -et/-ette

This suffix, which is added to nouns, has a diminutive function, making the noun smaller. -et is used for masculine nouns and -ette is used for feminine ones. Think of this suffix as synonymous with “un petit X”(a little X).

Examples:

Un petit garçon (a little boy) can also be referred to as un garçonnet (a little boy).

Le garçonnet court après le ballon. (The little boy is running after the ball.)

Une petite fille (a little girl) can also be referred to as une fillette (a little girl).

La fillette porte une robe jaune. (The little girl is wearing a yellow dress.)

10. -isme

This suffix, which derives from the Greek ismos and the Latin ismus, is used to refer to doctrines, ideologies or belief systems. It’s added to adjectival stems, which often end in -iste, to form masculine nouns.

Examples:

Une doctrine nationaliste (a nationalist doctrine) can be condensed to nationalisme (nationalism).

Le nationalisme est en pleine croissance en France. (Nationalism is spreading quickly in France.)

Une doctrine socialiste (a socialist doctrine) can be shortened to socialisme (socialism).

Le socialisme est un système politique et économique. (Socialism is a political and economic system.)

11. -issime

This suffix, which is added to adjectives, has an augmentative function, making the adjective stronger. Think of -issime as synonymous with the adjective très (very) or extrêmement (extremely).

Examples:

Très grand (very big) can be simply put as grandissime (very big).

La maison du Charles est grandissime. (Charles’ house is very big.)

Très grave (very serious) can be simply put as gravissime (very serious).

La maladie est gravissime. (The illness is very serious.)

12. -iste

This suffix, derived from the Greek ista, is similar to -issime above. While -issime is used to denote a doctrine or a school of thought, -iste refers to nouns that conform to said doctrines or schools of thought.

Example:

Someone or something (e.g., a book) that adheres to the doctrine of fascisme (fascism) is fasciste (fascist).

Le gouvernement de Benito Mussolini était fasciste. (Benito Mussolini’s government was fascist.)

Now that you’ve seen some of the more common suffixes, you can take things to the next level. These resources will keep you ahead in the vocabulary game:

  • The Francophone sites Orbilat and Études littéraires each offer quick reference guides to an extensive list of suffixes (with examples!).

And that’s just the beginning. Now it’s up to you to stay ahead!

And one more thing...

If you like learning French on your own time and from the comfort of your smart device, then I'd be remiss to not tell you about FluentU.

FluentU has a wide variety of great content, like interviews, documentary excerpts and web series, as you can see here:

learn-french-with-videos

FluentU brings native French videos with reach. With interactive captions, you can tap on any word to see an image, definition and useful examples.

learn-french-with-movies

For example, if you tap on the word "crois," you'll see this:

practice-french-with-subtitled-videos

Practice and reinforce all the vocabulary you've learned in a given video with learn mode. Swipe left or right to see more examples for the word you’re learning, and play the mini-games found in our dynamic flashcards, like "fill in the blank."

practice-french-with-adaptive-quizzes

All throughout, FluentU tracks the vocabulary that you’re learning and uses this information to give you a totally personalized experience. It gives you extra practice with difficult words—and reminds you when it’s time to review what you’ve learned.

Start using FluentU on the website with your computer or tablet or, better yet, download the FluentU app from the iTunes or Google Play stores.

If you liked this post, something tells me that you'll love FluentU, the best way to learn French with real-world videos.

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