korean numbers

Jump into the 2 Korean Number Systems and Learn to Count in Korean

You’ve had a bad week: You didn’t know what floor your doctor’s office was on or which subway line to take. You missed catching up with your friend because you didn’t know exactly what time you were supposed to meet her—or at which address.

Why? You forgot certain numbers. These simple snippets of life that you take for granted all involve numbers.

You can find them everywhere: Addresses, restaurant menus, money, plane tickets, even the episodes of your favorite Korean drama. (Don’t you just hate it when you mess up the plot by watching a drama in the wrong order!?)

Numbers speak for themselves, and these babies are packed with insight. Numbers aren’t just for doing math! (You don’t add street numbers, do you?)

When you’re learning a new language, numbers constitute a big slice of the pie and you can’t underestimate their importance in your trajectory as a learner.

In this post, we’ll talk about Korean numbers—from zero to a trillion. You’ll learn how to read, write and use them in your everyday life.

Ready? Fasten your seatbelt because this will be double the fun.

And, on that note…
 


 

Learn a foreign language with videos

Why Does Korean Have 2 Number Systems?

Korea employs two different number systems, and they’re used for different purposes. One is the “Korean Number System” and the other, the “Sino-Korean Number System.” “Sino,” in this case, refers to China.

So why would Korea have two number systems?

Well, it has something to do with geography and influence.

Look at a map and you’ll see that China and Korea are neighbors. They share a border—with China playing the big brother to the Korean Peninsula’s little brother. Being geographically close makes many things “transferable.” I’m not just talking about trading goods and family recipes here, I’m talking about philosophy (Confucianism), religion (Buddhism), language and, by extension, numbers. It’s even said that 60% of the Korean language has Chinese origins.

Not that Korea had zero influence on Chinese culture and beliefs, but if you wonder why the direction of transfer was mainly from “China-to-Korea,” it was because China was the ancient superpower. (It was basically today’s America.) China was already lording it over the region centuries before America was born.

In fact, Korean intellectual elites invested years to study Chinese characters and prestige was bestowed on anyone who demonstrated Chinese linguistic prowess.

Through political and cultural influence, these Chinese characters crept their way into the Korean number system. And so today you have two number systems in Korea: one native Korean, and the other with Chinese imprints.

(And oh, by the way, Japan has two numbers systems too!)

Jump into the 2 Korean Number Systems and Learn to Count in Korean

Native Korean Numbers: For Counting Apples

Okay, let’s start with the native Korean numbers. These numbers have three primary uses:

First, they’re used when you’re counting in Korean. You use these numbers when, say, you want to know how many students there are in your class, or how many times you’ve been late. Use them when you want to signify the numbers of objects, instances or occurrences, like “three marbles,” “five bowls of soup,” “eight pieces of fried chicken,” or “10 ‘Yes’ votes.”

Second, you use native Korean numbers when you’re talking about age.

You should know that native Korean numbers go only as high as 99. This doesn’t mean that you stop counting things—or your age—after that. If you go over 99, you just switch to the other system, which can go to the trillions and more.

Third, you use native Korean numbers when telling time. It’s a little bit tricky because you use it only for the hours. The “minutes” are denoted in the Sino-Korean system, which we’ll study later. So for example, if the time is “8:45,” you use native Korean for eight and the Sino-Korean for “45.”

That said, let’s dive right in.

How to count 1-10 in native Korean numbers

Here’s how to say one through 10 in Korean:

하나 (“Hana”) — one

(“Dool”) — two

(“Set”) — three

(“Net”) — four

다섯 (“Dasut”) — five

여섯 (“Yusut”) — six

일곱 (“Eelgop”) — seven

여덟 (“Yudulb”) — eight

아홉 (“Ahop”) — nine

(“Yul”) — 10

Commit these 10 items to memory because they’ll really come in handy when you start counting higher. Also note that there’s no zero in the native Korean counting system, so you’ll need to use the Sino-Korean word for zero (more on this later).

If you’re having trouble remembering these words (and really, you’ll need to internalize them so you can pull them out easily at a moment’s notice), this set of flashcards from FluentU will help you out a lot. You can listen to each number pronounced or click on it to hear snippets from videos where the words are used in context—which will help you remember them much better than just seeing them in isolation on a blog.

korean numbers

Explore the rest of FluentU for more a authentic and context-full way to learn Korean. That’s because FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons.

And as a nice bonus, you can quiz yourself on the numbers and FluentU will notice when you’ve mastered a word and focus on the ones you don’t quite remember well yet.

Got those numbers down, now? Great.

Going beyond 10 is really easy. You just use the formula:

10 + X

So for 11, we have “10 + 1.”

We already know that 10 is 열 and one is 하나. Therefore, eleven is 열하나 (“yulhana”).

Twelve (10 + 2) is 열 and 둘, making 열둘 (“yuldool”).

The numbers 11-19 are known as the yul series because they all start with yul and suffixed with the numbers from one to nine.

Okay—onward!

How to count 20-90 in native Korean numbers

Next, you need to memorize the tens (20, 30 and so on).

Here they are:

스물 (“Seumul”) — 20

서른 (“Seoreun”) — 30

마흔 (“Maheun”) — 40

(“Swin”) — 50

예순 (“Yesun”) — 60

일흔 (“Ilheun”) — 70

여든 (“Yeodeun”) — 80

아흔 (“Aheun”) — 90

For building the numbers in between, the method is still the same. For example, for the 20 series, you use this formula:

20 + X

So for 21, you’ll have 20, which is 스물 and one, which is 다섯, and you just straight up combine them into 스물하나 (“seumulhana”).

Here are some examples:

여든셋 (“Yeodeunset”) — 83

마흔다섯 (“Maheundasut”) — 45

아흔여섯 (“Aheunyusut”) — 96

Korean Counters

Now that you know the 99 Korean numbers, it’s time to talk about counters. Counting in Korean requires tags that allow us to identify what types or class of things we’re counting.

For example, we use a specific counter when counting people, another counter when dealing with animals and another one that can be used when counting inanimate objects.

If somebody asks you: “How many cats are in the box?” in English, you might say something like “three cats,” where the number comes before the noun. In Korean, we mention the object first, the number second and then, finally, the counter.

 So the formula is:

 Object (What) + Korean Number (How Many) + Counter

 As mentioned, there are different types of counters. For example,

(“gae”) is used for counting objects.

For example: 사과 여섯 개 (six apples)

(“myeong”) / 사람 (“saram”) is used for counting people

For example: 명 (10 people)

마리 (“mari”) is used for counting animals

For example: 고양이 여덟 마리 (eight cats)

(“jang”) is used for counting flat objects (eg. sheets of paper)

For example: 종이 일곱 장 (seven sheets of paper)

Special Numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 20

These numbers are special because they transform a little bit when they’re paired with a counter. They change by dropping their last letter. For example, 하나, when paired with a counter like 명 isn’t 하나 명 (“hana myeong”), but rather 한 명 (“han myeong”).

It rolls off the tongue better, doesn’t it?

Here are the rest of the transformations. Notice how they drop the last letter:

하나 (“Hana” ) → 한 (“Han” )

(“Dool”) → 두 (“Doo”)

(“Set”) → 세 (“Se”)

(“Net”) → 네 (“Ne”)

스물 (“Seumul”) → 스무 (“Seumu”)

So remember, any time you use a counter, use these forms for numbers one, two, three, four and 20.

How to Tell Your Age in Korean

Age is such an important concept for Koreans. You’re likely to be asked how old you are in the very first meeting so that people can talk and act accordingly. When somebody asks for your age, you use native Korean numbers.

The counter for age is (“sal”).

For example:

Q: 나이가 어떻게 되세요? (“How old are you?”)

A: 저는 + Native Korean Number + 살이에요. (I am + ____ + years old.)

How to Tell the Time with Native Korean Numbers

몇 시예요? (What time is it?)

Telling time is a little bit tricky because it uses both Korean numbers and the Sino-Korean numbers. The hours are stated in the native numbers and the minutes are Sino-Korean.

For the hours, your counter will be  (“shi”) which is like the “o’clock” in English. For the minutes, you use (“boon”). Later on, we’ll be dealing with Sino-Korean numbers. But for now, let’s talk about the full hours.

Here are the hours in Korean:

한 시 (“Hanshi”) — one o’clock

두 시 (“Dooshi”) — two o’clock

세 시 (“Seshi”) — three o’clock

네 시 (“Neshi”) — four o’clock

다섯 시 (“Daseosshi”) — five o’clock

여섯 시 (“Yeoseosshi”) — six o’clock

일곱 시 (“Ilgopshi”) — seven o’clock

여덟 시 (“Yeodulshi”) — eight o’clock

아홉 시 (“Ahopshi”) — nine o’clock

열 시 (“Yeolshi”) — 10 o’clock

열한 시 (“Yeolhanshi”) — 11 o’clock

열두 시 (“Yeoldooshi”) — 12 o’clock

Here are two more important words to know:

오전 (“Ojeon”) — AM

오후 (“Ohu”) — PM

In English, the AM/PM comes after the minutes. In Korean, it’s the other way around. The formula for telling time is:

AM/PM + Hour + Minutes

Okay, speaking of time, it’s time to go look at Sino-Korean numbers.

Sino-Korean Numbers: For 100 and Up

The Sino-Korean numbers are used to count larger numbers.

How to count 1-10 in Sino-Korean numbers

Here are the first 10 Sino-Korean numbers:

(“Yeong”) or (“Gong”) — zero

(“Eel”) — one

(“Ee”) — two

(“Sam”) — three

(“Sa”) — four

(“O”) — five

(“Yook”) — six

(“Chil”) — seven

(“Pal”) — eight

(“Goo”) — nine

(“Ship”) — 10

It’s very important that you commit these numbers to memory because they’re your building blocks. You’re going to be using them in building bigger and bigger numbers.

Need some help remembering these numbers? Just listen to this adorable Korean number song that you’ll definitely be singing in your head for the next week (you’re welcome!).

korean numbersThis video is available on FluentU with a full transcript and subtitles—and if you still don’t have the Sino-Korean numbers memorized by the end of the song, you can save each number to your personal study deck and review them later with flashcards (that also have video!).

Up next is 11-19, which is called the ship series because they all start with 십  (“ship”).

십일 (“Shipil”) — 11

십이 (“Shipi”) — 12

십삼 (“Shipsam”) — 13

십사 (“Shipsa”) — 14

십오 (“Shipo”) — 15

십육 (“Shipnyuk”) — 16

십칠 (“Shipchil”) — 17

십팔 (“Ship-pal”) — 18

십구 (“Shipgu”) — 19

이십 (“Eeship”) — 20

As you may have already noticed, the formula for numbers 11-19 is still:

10 + X

So 십, which is the Sino-Korean number for 10, comes in first and is then suffixed by the ones digit (X). That’s why 17 in the Sino-Korean nomenclature is 십칠 (“Shipchil”) following the 10 + X formula.

How to count 20-90 in Sino-Korean numbers

You’ll see next that the situation reverses when you deal with 20s, 30s, 40s, etc.:

이십 (“Eeship”) — 20

삼십 (“Samship”) — 30

사십 (“Saship”) — 40

오십 (“Oship”) — 50

육십 (“Yukship”) — 60

칠십 (“Chilship”) — 70

팔십 (“Palship”) — 80

구십 (“Guship”) — 90

This time, when you’re dealing with the tens (20-90), the formula is reversed. It becomes:

X + 10

The number 80, for example, becomes 팔십 (“Palship”), where 팔 is the Sino-Korean number for eight and is suffixed by 십, which is 10. Again, this formula is the reverse of the one we used in building numbers 11-19.

Now that we know how counting by tens works, we can easily work out how the numbers between them like 25, 36, 49 are written. You simply add the ones digit at the end.

Let’s designate the ones digit as “Y” this time. So the formula becomes:

X + 10 + Y

We know 20 is 이십 (“Eeship”). By adding the five at the end (오), we get 25: 이십오 (“Eeship-o”). Here are a few more examples:

삼십팔 (“Samship-pal”) — 38

사십구 (“Saship-goo”) — 49

Counting 100-10,000 in Sino-Korean numbers

Got all that? Excellent. Let’s move forward and get to the hundreds:

(“Baek”) — 100

이백 (“Ibaek”) — 200

삼백 (“Sambaek”) — 300

사백 (“Sabaek”) — 400

오백 (“Obaek”) — 500

육백 (“Yukbaek”) — 600

칠백 (“Chilbaek”) — 700

팔백 (“Palbaek”) — 800

구백 (“Gubaek”) — 900

You’ll notice that the names of the hundreds still follow the names of our basic numbers. Since three is 삼, 300 is 삼백 (“sam-baek”); since seven is 칠, 700 is 칠백 (“chil-baek”).

For non-rounded numbers like 367, you just tack on 67 to the tail of 300. So it becomes 삼백육십칠 (“Sambaek-yukship-chil”). You can build ever bigger numbers this way.

The pattern pretty much holds in the thousands, as well:

(“Cheon”) — 1,000

이천 (“Icheon”) — 2,000

삼천 (“Samcheon”) — 3,000

사천 (“Sacheon”) — 4,000

오천 (“Ocheon”) — 5,000

육천 (“Yukcheon”) — 6,000

칠천 (“Chilcheon”) — 7,000

팔천 (“Palcheon”) — 8,000

구천 (“Gucheon”) — 9,000

For non-rounded numbers like 1,367, you just tack in 67 to the tail of 300. So it becomes 천삼백육십칠 (“Cheon-sambaek-yukship-chil”). Easy, right?

Counting 10,000 and higher: It’s all about the “Man”

Okay, let’s talk about a very important number in the Sino-Korean system—the number 10,000, also known as (“Man”).

Ten thousand is really an inflection point in this number system because Koreans count by increments of 10,000. This is unlike most of the Western world that counts in multiples of 1,000.

So what difference does this make? A lot, actually.

For a Westerner—100,000 is 100 multiples of 1,000.

For Koreans—100,000 is 10 multiples of 10,000.

In this number system, 10 million is 천만 (“Cheonman”) because 10 million is 1,000 multiples of 10,000. And if you look above, what’s the Korean word for 1,000 again? Right. It’s (“Cheon”).

I know this might sound a little bit unnerving to wrap your head around, but to help you, just remember to drop the last four digits of the big number. Then, compose whatever’s left. Suffix that number with 만 (“man”). Then bring back the four digits that you dropped and compose it as you normally would.

For example, 127,563. If we first drop the last four digits, only the 12 remains. In Korean, you’re saying that there are 12 multiples of 10,000. So 127,563 is 십이만 칠천오백육십삼.

Here are some examples:

칠만 팔천이백사십오 — 78,245

삼십칠만 팔천구백오십 — 378,950

To go to the higher numbers, you need to remember 십, 백 and 천 in Sino-Korean:

100,000 is 십만 (“Ship-man”) because it’s 10 x 10,000.

1 million is 백만 (“Baek-man”) because it’s 100 x 10,000

10 million is 천만 (“Cheon-man”) because it’s 1,000 x 10,000

Some more important words:

(“Eok”) — 100 million

Then you go through the 십, 백 and 천 progression we’ve modeled above for a billion, 10 billion and 100 billion respectively.

(“Jo”) — 1 trillion

You then go through the same progression for the higher numbers.

Now that you know how to count using this system, let’s look at some of the ways these Sino-Korean numbers are used in daily life.

How to Tell Time with Sino-Korean Numbers

As we’ve said earlier, Korean hours are designated in native Korean numbers—with the counter 시 (“shi”)—and the minutes are designated in Sino-Korean—with (“boon”) as the counter. After studying the Sino-Korean numbers, we can now tell time with minutes.

Here are some commonly used minute intervals:

십오 분 (“Shipoboon”) — 15 minutes

삼십 분 (“Samshipboon”) — 30 minutes

(“Ban”) — half

사십오 분 (“Sashipoboon” ) — 45 minutes

Here are some examples:

오전 여덟 시 삼십 분 (“Ojeon yeodulshi samshipboon”) — 8:30 AM

오후 일곱 시 이십팔 분 (“Ohu ilgopshi eshippalboon”) — 7:28 PM

How to Tell the Date in Korean

You don’t want to be just on time to meet your friend—you’ve got to make sure that you’re waiting in that coffee shop on the correct day! So let’s quickly learn how dates work in Korean.

In America, dates usually follow the “Month-Day-Year” pattern. For example, “April 16, 2020.”

In Korea, the year is mentioned first. They follow the “Year-Month-Day” format, as in “2020 4 16일.

(“Nyeon”) — year

(“Wol”) — month

(“Il”) — day

The date above is read as 이천이십 년 사 월 십육 일 (“Icheon eeship-nyeon sa-wol shipnyuk-il”).

Here are the months in Korean. They’re simply the first 12 Sino-Korean numbers suffixed by 월 (“wol”).

1 (“Irwol”) — January

2 (“Iwol”) — February

3 (“Samwol”) — March

4 (“Sawol”) — April

5 (“Owol”) — May

6 (“Yuwol”) — June

7 (“Chirwol”) — July

8 (“Palwol”) — August

9 (“Guwol”) — September

10 (“Siwol”) — October

11 (“Shipilwol”) — November

12 (“Shipiwol”) — December

How to Tell Your Phone Number in Korean

Because you now know the Sino-Korean numbers, you can finally tell that Korean hottie your digits… and expect a call anytime now.

Phone numbers are read individually in Korean. While Americans love to bunch up numbers saying “20-20” for 2020, Koreans don’t usually do that.

They do, however, use 에 (“e”) to signify a “dash” between the group of numbers. So when you’re writing a phone number down, hearing this means you better put a “-” between the numbers.

Also, because the numbers 1일 (“eel”) and 2이 (“ee”) sound very similar and don’t come through very clearly over the phone, sometimes 1일 (“eel”) is replaced with the native Korean 1하나 (“hana”) to avoid confusion.

For telephone numbers, 공 (“gong”) is used for zeroes.

Let’s look at a couple of examples:

공일공에 이삼육사에 팔칠공구 — 010-2364-8709

공구일칠 팔이이에 공공육사 — (0917) 822-0064

This video about how important our phones are shows a bunch of people with their phone numbers listed above their heads. Pause the video when you see a number and practice saying it out loud—in Korean, of course!

korean numbers

Other Uses of the Sino Korean System

The Sino-Korean Number System has many other uses.

For anything above 100, this is your guy.

The Korean currency, the Won, is designated in Sino-Korean. Numbers in addresses use it too. Dimensions and measurements do, as well. Here are some example of Korean counters that use Sino-Korean numbers:

킬로미터 (“Kil-lo-mee-teo”) — kilometers

미터 (“Mee-teo”) — meters

리터 (“Li-teo”) — liters

(“Doh”) — temperature, usually in degrees Celsius

(“Cho”) — seconds

Subway lines, floors in buildings, even the episodes of your favorite Korean dramas are counted in this number system!

 

Now that you know Korean numbers, you’ll have the confidence to communicate properly and get to any meeting… on time!
 

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