The 1028 Most Common Words in English

One of the hardest parts of English is mastering common English words you hear almost everywhere.

The good news is that once you learn these words—and how to use them properly—you will be able to express almost any idea!

Below, we have all the information you need to learn the most common words in English, their meanings and what category they fall under to make them easier to learn. We also have some tips to help make your vocabulary studies even easier.



There are three articles in English: a, an and the. All of them are used before words to show that those words are being talked about.

English ArticlesHow It's UsedExample Sentence
a indefinite article; used before a noun that starts with a consonant when talking about something not specific. I would love to eat a sandwich.
an indefinite article; used before a noun that starts with a vowel when talking about something not specific. She bought an apple.
the definite article; used before a noun (person, place or thing) when you want to reference something specific. The girl I met yesterday was friendly.


Pronouns are words used to replace nouns or noun phrases.

For example, if you want to talk about a person named “John,” you say “John is a nice person. He always greets me in the morning.” . In that sentence, “he” is used to refer to “John.” Otherwise, your description will sound repetitive and awkward, like “John is a nice person. John always greets me in the morning.”

Here are some of the most common pronouns you should know.

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns refer to specific people or things and can change based on person, number and gender.

English Personal PronounsHow It's UsedExample Sentence
I Used when you are talking about yourself. Instead of saying your name, you can use the word I. I am happy today.
you Refers to another person you are talking to directly What do you think?
he Used when you are talking about a male, but not talking to the male directly My dad is funny. He tells me jokes.
she Used when you are talking about a female, but not talking to the female directly She is reading a book.
it Refers to a thing or animal with no gender Our house is new. It is small and white.
we Refers to a group of people you are part of We like going to the movies.
they Refers to a group of people or things not included in the conversation The students in the class are tired. They need a break.

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns talk about specific people, things or ideas.

English Demonstrative PronounsMeaning and UsageExample Sentence
this Refers to a single thing that is near This is a beautiful ring.
that Refers to a single thing that is far Look at that! It's a wonderful fireworks display.
these Refers to multiple things nearby These are the flowers my beloved gave me yesterday.
those Refers to multiple things farther away Those are called ravens.

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions about people or things.

English Interrogative PronounsWhat It Asks AboutExample Sentence
what things or actions What is your favorite color?
which choices or options Which book do you want to read?
who people Who is coming to the party tonight?
whom object of a sentence Whom did you invite to the event?
whose possession or ownership Whose car is parked outside?

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns indicate ownership or possession of something.

English Possessive PronounsWho the Pronoun Indicates Is the OwnerExample Sentence
mine you The red car is mine.
yours the person you are talking to The blue bike is yours.
his a male person being talked about His black coat looks good.
hers a female person being talked about The brown bag is hers.
ours a group you are part of The big house is ours.
theirs a group you are talking about The white boat is theirs.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object of a sentence are the same. They are also used to show that something is being done by the subject without any help.

English Reflexive PronounsTypeExample Sentence
myself First person singular I will do the dishes myself.
yourself Second person singular or plural You should be proud of yourself.
himself Third person singular masculine He taught himself to play the guitar.
herself Third person singular feminine She bought the dress herself.
itself Third person singular neutral or no gender The cat can clean itself.
ourselves First person plural We prepared the dinner ourselves.
yourselves Second person plural You can fix the problem yourselves.
themselves Third person plural The students organized the event themselves.

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns refer to non-specific people or things.

English Indefinite PronounsMeaning and UsageExample Sentence
anyone Refers to any person or people Anyone can join the club.
anything Refers to any thing or things We can eat anything for dinner.
anywhere Refers to any place or places We can go anywhere for vacation.
someone Refers to a specific unknown person or people Someone is waiting for you at the door.
something Refers to a specific unknown thing or things I saw something strange in the woods.
somewhere Refers to a specific unknown place or places Let's go somewhere new this weekend.
everyone Refers to every person Everyone enjoyed the party.
everything Refers to every thing She knows everything about computers.
everywhere Refers to every place The festival attracts visitors from everywhere.
nobody Refers to no person Nobody was present at the meeting.
nothing Refers to no thing He said nothing during the entire class.
nowhere Refers to no place The lost keys are nowhere to be found.
somebody Refers to a specific unknown person or people (more casual than "someone") Somebody left their umbrella in the café.
anybody Refers to any person or people (more casual than "anyone") Anybody can participate in the talent show.


Conjunctions are used to connect ideas within a sentence. They can also connect two sentences together.

English ConjunctionsWhat It's Used ForExample Sentence
and Joins two similar ideas or elements together The girl went to the kitchen and made a cup of coffee.
but Shows how two ideas or elements contrast or add to one another I want to go to the bar, but I have to finish my work.
or Presents options or alternatives Would you like tea or coffee?
nor Used in negative sentences as a partner to "neither" I am neither a doctor nor a lawyer.
for Indicates a reason or purpose She went to the store for some groceries.
so Shows a consequence or result The weather was bad, so we canceled the picnic.
if Introduces a conditional clause If it rains, we will stay indoors.
because Gives a reason or cause She was late because of heavy traffic.
although Introduces a concession or contrast Although it was raining, they went for a walk.
since Indicates a time or reason in the past I have known her since childhood.


Prepositions tell you where a noun is in relation to other things.

English PrepositionsMeaningExample Sentence
about concerning or related to something We talked about the weather.
above in a higher position than something The kite is flying above the clouds.
across on the opposite side of something The bank is just across the street.
after following in time or sequence We will have dinner after the movie.
against in opposition to something The soccer team is playing against their rivals.
along moving in a line or direction The river flows along the valley.
among in the middle of a group or surrounded by something There is a red apple among the green ones.
around moving in a circular manner or surrounding something The children are playing around the tree.
at indicating a specific time or location We'll meet at the park at noon.
before earlier in time or in front of something Please clean up before you leave.
behind at the back of something or in a position further back The book is behind the shelf.
below in or to a lower position The fish are swimming below the water surface.
beside by the side of or next to something I sat beside my friend in class.
between in the space separating two things or people The cat is between the two boxes.
by near to or beside something The restaurant is by the park.
down moving from a higher position to a lower position The ball rolled down the hill.
during throughout the course of a particular time period He ate a lot during the party.
except not including or excluding something Everyone is here except for Sara.
for intended to benefit someone or something I bought a gift for my sister.
from indicating the starting point of a movement or distance The train is coming from the station.
in inside or within something The keys are in the drawer.
into expressing movement or direction towards the inside of something The cat jumped into the box.
like similar to or in the same manner as something She sings like a bird.
near close to or not far from a particular place There is a grocery store near my house.
next to directly beside or adjacent to something The library is next to the school.
of expressing the relationship between a part and a whole or possession A friend of mine visited me yesterday.
off away from or not on something To go to the mall, get off at X train station.
on touching or covering a surface The book is on the table.
out outside or away from a place The cat ran out of the house.
over above or higher than something else The plane flew over the mountains.
past going beyond or in front of something The car drove past the traffic light.


Interjections are words used to show strong emotions. They are usually written with an  exclamation point (!) to show that whoever is saying it is doing so in a louder or higher voice than normal.

English InterjectionsWhat It ExpressesExample Sentence
Wow surprise, amazement or admiration Wow, that's incredible!
Oh surprise, realization or disappointment Oh, I see what you mean.
Ah understanding or satisfaction Ah, now I understand.
Ouch pain or discomfort Ouch, that hurt!
Oops indicates a small mistake or accident Oops, I dropped my pen.
Yay joy, excitement or celebration Yay, we won the game!
Hurray triumph or happiness Hurray, we did it!
Hmm hesitation, thoughtfulness or uncertainty Hmm, I'm not sure about that.
Eww disgust or distaste Eww, this food tastes terrible!
Phew relief or exhaustion Phew, I finally finished my project.


Determiners are words that introduce nouns and let you know what these nouns are referring to.

English DeterminersUsageExample Sentence
any Used before a singular countable or uncountable noun to indicate an indefinite or non-specific amount You can choose any book from the shelf. (singular countable noun)
Do you have any milk left? (uncountable noun)
some Used before a plural countable or uncountable noun to indicate a non-specific amount He brought some snacks to the party. (plural countable noun)
Would you like some water? (uncountable noun)
many Used before a plural countable noun to indicate a large quantity or number There are many books on the shelf.
much Used before an uncountable noun to indicate a large quantity or amount There isn't much time left.
several Used before a plural countable noun to indicate an unspecified small number of items She bought several new dresses.
all Used before a plural countable noun or an uncountable noun to indicate the entire quantity or every item All students should submit their assignments. (plural countable noun)
She ate all the cake. (uncountable noun)
each Used before a singular countable noun to indicate every individual item separately Each student received a certificate.


Nouns are words that refer to people, places, things, events or ideas. There are two types: common nouns and proper nouns.

Common nouns refer to a generic person, object, place, events or idea. They are usually not capitalized (written with a bigger first letter) unless they start a sentence. Proper nouns, on the other hand, refer to specific people, objects, places, events or ideas. They are always capitalized.

For the sake of brevity (using as few words as possible to convey as much as possible), we will only tackle common nouns.

Common Nouns for People

Common Nouns for PeopleMeaningExample Sentence
accountant a person who helps manage and keep track of financial records for individuals or businesses My friend's mom is an accountant. She helps people with their taxes and budgeting.
actor a person who performs in plays, movies or TV shows to entertain others The actor played the role of a brave superhero in the movie.
activist a person who works to bring about social or political change by speaking out and taking action on important issues The activist organized a peaceful protest to support environmental protection.
adult a fully grown person who is no longer a child or a teenager In many countries, you become an adult when you turn 18 years old.
aide someone who helps and supports another person, especially in their work or daily tasks The teacher's aide assists students with their homework and class projects.
artist a person who creates art (such as paintings, drawings, sculptures or music) to express themselves or evoke emotions The artist painted a beautiful landscape with bright colors and stunning details.
athlete a person who participates in sports or physical activities, often competing against others She trained hard to become an athlete and compete in the upcoming marathon.
aunt the sister of someone's mother or father My aunt gave me a lovely birthday present last week.
boss a person in charge of a company, organization or group of workers My boss is always busy, but he is fair and supports us in our work.
chef a person who cooks professionally, often in restaurants or hotels The chef prepared a delicious three-course meal for the guests.
child a young person who is not yet an adult, usually under the age of 12 or 13 The children played games and had fun at the birthday party.
coach a person who trains and guides athletes or sports teams to improve their skills and performance The soccer coach taught the players new techniques to play better.
comedian a person who tells jokes and funny stories to entertain an audience The comedian had everyone laughing with their hilarious stand-up comedy.
cousin the child of one's aunt or uncle My cousin and I like to play games together whenever we visit each other.
coworker a person who works together with you in the same company or organization My coworker and I collaborated on the project to finish it on time.
customer a person who buys goods or services from a store or a business The customer was happy with the quality of the product they purchased.
dancer a person who moves rhythmically to music as an art form or for entertainment The ballet dancer performed gracefully on the stage, captivating the audience.
doctor a person who practices medicine and treats people's illnesses and injuries The doctor examined the patient and prescribed some medicine for their cold.
driver a person who operates a vehicle, such as a car, bus or truck My dad is a good driver, and he takes us safely to school every day.
economist a person who studies and analyzes economic systems and issues The economist predicted that inflation would go down in the next year.
employee a person who works for a company or an organization, usually receiving a salary or wages The employee was happy to receive a promotion for their hard work.
engineer a person who designs and builds machines, structures, or technological systems The engineer created a new device that makes our lives easier.
firefighter a person who works to put out fires and rescue people from dangerous situations The firefighter bravely entered the burning building to save the trapped residents.
flight attendant a person who assists passengers during a flight, ensuring their safety and comfort The flight attendant served refreshments and provided instructions before takeoff.
friend a person you like and enjoy spending time with; someone you trust and care about My best friend and I share secrets and have fun together.
grandchild the child of one's son or daughter My grandparents love spending time with their grandchild during the holidays.
grandparent the parent of one's parent My grandmother bakes delicious cookies for us every weekend.
guest a person who is invited to someone's home or an event The host welcomed the guests and offered them drinks.
host a person who organizes and invites others to an event or gathering The host of the party prepared a variety of games and activities.
immigrant a person who moves to a new country to live there permanently The immigrant worked hard to build a better life in their new homeland.
journalist a person who writes news stories and reports on current events for newspapers, magazines or TV The journalist interviewed people to gather information for the article.
judge a person in a court of law who decides the outcome of a legal case The judge carefully listened to the evidence before making the verdict.
lawyer a person who practices law and represents clients in legal matters The lawyer helped the client understand their rights and legal options.
man an adult male person The man helped the elderly woman cross the street.
musician a person who plays a musical instrument or sings The musician performed a beautiful song on the guitar.
neighbor a person who lives near you, usually in the same neighborhood My neighbor and I often chat while walking our dogs.
nurse a person who provides medical care and support to patients, often in a hospital or clinic The nurse checked the patient's temperature and gave them medicine.
parent a mother or father who takes care of and raises a child The parent read a bedtime story to their child before sleep.
patient a person receiving medical treatment or care from a doctor or a nurse The patient felt better after taking the prescribed medicine.
photographer a person who takes pictures or photographs as a profession or hobby The photographer captured beautiful scenery during their travels.
pilot a person who operates and flies an aircraft, such as an airplane or helicopter The pilot announced that the flight would land soon.
police officer a person who works in law enforcement to protect people and maintain order The police officer helped the lost child find their parents.
politician a person who is involved in politics and works for the government or public office The politician campaigned to improve education and healthcare.
programmer a person who writes and develops computer programs or software The programmer created a new app that helps people learn languages.
receptionist a person who works at the front desk of a hotel, office or organization, welcoming and assisting visitors or guests The receptionist greeted the guests and directed them to the meeting room.
refugee a person who has been forced to leave their home country to escape war, persecution or disaster The refugee found safety and assistance in a neighboring country.
referee a person who ensures that the rules are followed in sports games or competitions The referee awarded a penalty kick to the opposing team.
relative a person who is connected to you by family ties, like a cousin, aunt, uncle or grandparent My relatives from out of town came to visit us during the holidays.
salesperson a person who works in sales, helping customers choose and purchase products The salesperson showed the customer different models of smartphones.
scientist a person who studies the natural world and conducts experiments to discover new knowledge The scientist conducted research to find a cure for the disease.
shopper a person who goes to stores to buy goods or products The shopper filled their cart with groceries for the week.
singer a person who sings songs or performs vocally The singer had a beautiful voice that touched the audience's hearts.
sibling a brother or sister My sibling and I love playing games together.
soldier a person who serves in the military to defend their country or participate in wars The soldier bravely fought on the front lines to protect their homeland.
student a person who attends school or college to learn and study The student studied hard for the upcoming exam.
teacher a person who educates and instructs students in school or other learning settings The teacher explained the lesson clearly and answered students' questions.
tour guide a person who leads and provides information to tourists during sightseeing or visits to places of interest The tour guide showed the group around the historical landmarks.
tourist a person who travels to different places for leisure and exploration The tourist took pictures of famous landmarks during their vacation.
uncle the brother of someone's mother or father My uncle taught me how to ride a bike when I was little.
vendor a person who sells goods or services, often in a market or on the street The vendor offered fresh fruits and vegetables at the market.
voter a person who participates in elections by casting their vote to choose political leaders or decide on issues As a responsible citizen, I registered to be a voter and cast my vote in the election.
waiter a person who serves food and drinks in a restaurant The waiter brought us the menu and took our orders.
woman an adult female person The woman smiled and thanked the helpful stranger.
writer a person who creates written works, such as books, articles, or stories The writer published a new novel that became very popular.

Common Nouns for Objects / Technology

Common Nouns for Objects / TechnologyMeaningExample Sentence
(short for "application" )
a small computer program you can install on your phone or tablet for various tasks or entertainment I downloaded a language learning app to help me practice English.
audio sound or the part of technology that deals with recording and playing sound The audio quality of the music player was excellent.
bag a container used to carry things Sarah carries her books to school in a blue bag.
battery a device that provides power to electronic devices and can be recharged or replaced My phone's battery is low, so I need to charge it.
belt a strip of material worn around the waist to hold clothes in place The brown belt matches well with his trousers.
blanket a large piece of fabric used to keep warm, usually on a bed During winter, I like to get under a warm blanket.
book a collection of pages with information or stories, usually bound together Mary enjoys reading adventure books before bedtime.
bottle a container, usually made of glass or plastic, used to hold liquids Please pass me the water bottle. I'm thirsty.
box a container with a lid, used to store or carry items Grandma keeps her old photos in a wooden box.
bracelet a piece of jewelry worn around the wrist Jenny received a beautiful silver bracelet as a birthday gift.
broom a long-handled cleaning tool used to sweep floors Every morning, she uses a broom to clean the kitchen.
brush a tool with bristles used to clean or groom Dana uses a brush to straighten her hair every morning.
bucket a container with a handle, used for carrying liquids or other materials Mark filled the bucket with sand to build a sandcastle.
cable a wire used to connect devices together, like a charging cable for a phone Please plug the cable into the computer to transfer the files.
camera a device used to capture photographs or record videos Lisa loves taking pictures with her new digital camera.
can opener a tool used to open the lid of a can James used the can opener to open a can of soup.
chair a piece of furniture with a seat and a backrest for one person to sit on This chair is very comfortable.
charger a device used to supply power to recharge electronic devices I need to find my phone charger; my battery is low.
clip a small metal or plastic fastener used to hold things together She uses a clip to keep her papers organized.
clothespin a wooden or plastic clip used to hang clothes on a line to dry Mom hung the wet laundry on the line using clothespins.
clock a device that shows the time The clock on the wall tells us when it's time for lunch.
coin a small, flat piece of metal used as money I found a shiny coin on the sidewalk.
colander a bowl-shaped container with small holes, used for draining liquids from food After boiling the pasta, she used a colander to drain the water.
comb a tool used to untangle and style hair Emma brushed her hair with a comb before going to school.
computer a machine that can process information and perform various tasks He uses his computer to write essays and watch videos.
cup a small container with a handle, used for drinking liquids Can you pass me a cup of hot cocoa, please?
cutting board a flat surface used for cutting and preparing food Before chopping vegetables, she placed them on the cutting board.
data information or facts that can be stored and used by a computer The data on my computer includes pictures from my last vacation.
detergent a cleaning substance used for washing clothes or dishes Mom added detergent to the washing machine to clean the clothes.
dustpan a flat scoop used to collect dust and dirt from the floor After sweeping the floor, she used a dustpan to pick up the dirt.
earrings jewelry worn on the ears Sarah received a pair of beautiful earrings as a birthday gift.
email electronic messages sent and received using the internet I sent an email to my friend, inviting her to the party.
eraser a small rubber tool used to remove pencil marks Ben used the eraser to correct his mistake on the paper.
fork a utensil with three or more prongs used for eating or serving food The fork is essential for eating spaghetti.
floss a thin thread used for cleaning between teeth Experts recommend using a dental floss daily to keep teeth healthy.
(short for "refrigerator" )
a household appliance used to keep food and drinks cold The milk is in the fridge.
glass a transparent container used for drinking liquids The waiter brought a glass of water to the table.
glue a liquid used to stick things together He used glue to fix his broken toy.
grater a tool with sharp-edged holes used to shred or grate food She used a grater to grate some cheese for the pasta.
hanger a device used to hang clothes in a closet Please put your coat on the hanger when you come inside.
headphones a pair of speakers worn over the ears to listen to audio I like to listen to music with my headphones on the bus.
ice cube tray a container used to make ice cubes in a freezer The ice cube tray should be full at all times.
internet a global network that connects computers and allows access to information I use the internet to search for information and watch videos.
key a small metal object used to unlock doors or start vehicles Don't forget your house key when you go out.
keyboard a set of keys used for typing on a computer or smartphone He typed an email using the keyboard on his laptop.
knife a sharp-edged utensil used for cutting or slicing The chef used a knife to cut the vegetables for the salad.
ladle a large spoon with a long handle, used for serving soup or stew Mom used a ladle to serve the delicious soup.
lamp a device that produces light, usually with a shade to cover it Tim turned on the lamp to read his book in bed.
laptop a portable computer that can be used on one's lap She carries her laptop with her when she travels.
magnet an object that attracts and holds metal objects The magnet stuck to the fridge door.
mop a tool used for cleaning floors, typically with a long handle and absorbent material After spilling juice, he used a mop to clean the floor.
mirror a reflective surface She looked in the mirror before leaving the house.
microphone a device used to amplify and record sound The singer held the microphone and sang a beautiful song.
microwave an appliance used to heat or cook food quickly He warmed up the leftovers in the microwave.
modem a device that connects a computer to the internet through a phone line or cable The modem allows us to access the internet in our home.
mouse a small device used to move the cursor on a computer screen He clicked on the icon using the mouse to open the program.
nail clipper a tool used to trim fingernails and toenails John used a nail clipper to cut his nails neatly.
necklace a piece of jewelry worn around the neck Jane received a beautiful necklace as a gift.
oven a kitchen appliance used for baking and cooking food Mom baked a delicious cake in the oven.
paper a thin material used for writing, drawing and printing He wrote a letter on a piece of paper.
pen a writing instrument with ink used for writing or drawing My pen ran out of ink.
perfume a scented liquid used to make someone smell pleasant She put on some perfume before going to the party.
pencil sharpener a device used to sharpen the tip of a pencil Jimmy used a pencil sharpener to make his pencil pointy.
peeler a tool used to remove the skin or outer layer of fruits and vegetables Sarah used a peeler on the apple.
phone a device used for making calls and sending messages When the phone rang, she answered it quickly.
pillow a soft cushion used to support the head while sleeping She fluffed the pillow before going to bed.
pin a small thin object used to fasten or hold things together She used a pin to attach the badge to her shirt.
plate a flat dish used for serving or eating food The waiter brought a plate of pasta to the table.
printer a machine that produces paper copies of documents and pictures She printed the report and handed it to her teacher.
projector a device used to display images or videos on a large screen or wall The teacher used a projector to show educational videos in class.
remote a handheld device used to control electronic devices like TVs She changed the channel with the remote while sitting on the couch.
ring a circular piece of jewelry worn on the finger Linda received a diamond ring as an engagement gift.
rolling pin a cylindrical tool used to flatten and shape dough Mom used a rolling pin to roll out the dough for the pie.
router a device that connects multiple computers to the internet within a network The router at home allows everyone to use the internet simultaneously.
ruler a straight measuring tool used to measure length or draw straight lines The ruler helped her draw a straight line.
scanner a device that captures images or documents and converts them into digital files She scanned the photo and saved it on her computer.
scarf a piece of fabric worn around the neck for warmth or fashion In winter, he wears a warm scarf to keep the cold away.
scissors a tool with two blades used for cutting paper, fabric or other materials She used scissors to cut out pictures for her project.
sensor a device that detects changes in the environment and sends signals The sensor in the room turns on the lights when it's dark.
shampoo a liquid used to clean and wash hair She used shampoo to wash her hair in the shower.
shovel a tool with a long handle and a scoop used for digging The shovel is rusty now.
sink a bowl-shaped basin used for washing dishes or hands She washed her hands in the sink before dinner.
slippers comfortable indoor footwear worn for warmth and comfort After a long day, he put on his cozy slippers to relax.
smartphone a mobile phone that has advanced capabilities like internet access and apps He uses his smartphone to check emails and play games.
soap a substance used for cleaning and washing the body She washed her hands with soap before eating.
spatula a flat, flexible tool used for flipping or lifting food With a spatula, she flipped the pancakes on the griddle.
spoon a utensil with a small bowl and a handle, used for eating or serving food The spoon is perfect for scooping ice cream.
stapler a device used to fasten papers together with staples The stapler helped her keep her papers organized.
strainer a device with tiny holes used to separate liquids from solids She used a strainer to drain the water from the pasta.
sunglasses glasses with tinted lenses used to protect the eyes from the sun When she puts on her sunglasses, she looks like an actress.
tablet a portable device with a touch screen for various tasks and entertainment She reads e-books on her tablet before going to bed.
tape a narrow strip of adhesive material used for sticking things together He used tape to seal the package.
television an electronic device used for watching programs and shows After dinner, we gathered around the television to watch a movie.
thermometer a device used to measure temperature The doctor used a thermometer to check her temperature.
tie a long, narrow piece of fabric worn around the neck, usually with formal attire He wore a tie to the wedding to look smart.
tissue a soft, thin piece of paper used for wiping and cleaning With a tissue, she wiped away her tears.
toothpaste a paste used for cleaning teeth He squeezed some toothpaste onto his toothbrush.
tongs a tool with two arms used for picking up and holding objects She used tongs to pick up the hot toast from the toaster.
towel a piece of fabric used for drying the body or hands After the shower, she wrapped a towel around her body.
vacuum cleaner an electrical device used for cleaning floors and carpets She ran the vacuum cleaner to clean the living room.
vase a decorative container used to hold flowers or other items She placed the fresh flowers in a beautiful vase on the table.
video moving images and sound that can be recorded and played We watched a funny video of cats playing on the internet.
wallet a small, flat case used to carry money and cards He kept his driver's license and credit cards in his wallet.
washing machine a household appliance used to wash clothes Mom put the dirty clothes in the washing machine to do laundry.
watch a small timepiece worn on the wrist to tell time He checked his watch to see if it was time for lunch.
website a collection of related web pages that can be accessed on the internet I found a helpful website with recipes for cooking.
whisk a kitchen utensil used for beating eggs or mixing liquids She used a whisk to beat the eggs for the omelet.
window an opening in a wall with glass, used to let in light and air She opened the window to let fresh air into the room.
yarn fibers used for knitting, weaving, or making fabric She bought colorful yarn to knit a scarf for her friend.

Common Nouns for Places

Common Nouns for PlacesMeaningExample Sentence
airport a place where airplanes take off and land We are going to the airport to catch our flight.
amusement park a fun place with rides and games Let's go to the amusement park and try the roller coaster.
apartment a place where people live, which is part of a larger building I live in a small apartment with my family.
archipelago a group of small islands The Philippines is an archipelago with many beautiful islands.
archway a passage under an arch or a curved structure The archway leads to a lovely garden.
arena a large place where sports or entertainment events take place The basketball game will be held at the arena.
beach a sandy or pebbly area next to the sea or a lake We love to build sandcastles on the beach.
bridge a structure that connects two areas separated by a river or a valley The bridge allows people to cross the river easily.
bus stop a designated place where buses pick up and drop off passengers Wait at the bus stop for the next bus to arrive.
campsite a specific spot within a campground where someone sets up their tent or camper We found a nice campsite near the lake.
canyon a deep valley with steep sides, often carved by a river The Grand Canyon is one of the most famous canyons in the world.
castle a large, fortified building where royalty or nobility used to live The castle was surrounded by high walls to protect it from enemies.
cave a hollow space in the ground or on a hillside We explored the dark cave with flashlights.
cemetery a place where dead people are buried We visited the cemetery to pay our respects to our loved ones.
church a building where Christians worship and pray We go to church every Sunday for the service.
cinema a place where people watch movies Let's go to the cinema and see the new film.
city a large and busy place where many people live and work New York city is a bustling metropolis with tall buildings.
continent one of the seven large landmasses on Earth Africa is the second-largest continent.
countryside the rural area away from cities and towns We enjoy the peacefulness of the countryside.
country a nation with its own government and borders Canada is a beautiful country with stunning landscapes.
desert a dry, sandy area with little or no vegetation The Sahara desert is the largest desert in the world.
downtown the central business area of a city We went downtown to do some shopping.
farm a place where crops are grown and animals are raised We visited a farm and saw cows and chickens.
forest a large area with many trees and plants We took a hike through the forest and spotted some birds.
garden a place where plants, flowers, and sometimes vegetables are grown Grandma has a beautiful garden with colorful flowers.
glacier a large mass of ice that moves slowly down a mountain valley We saw the glacier while hiking in the national park.
harbor a sheltered area of water where ships can anchor The fishing boats are docked in the harbor.
hills elevated areas of land that are lower than mountains We climbed the hills to get a better view of the countryside.
hospital a place where sick or injured people are treated by doctors and nurses He stayed in the hospital for a week after his surgery.
house a building where people live Our new house has a big backyard.
island a piece of land surrounded by water We went on a boat trip to explore the island.
lake a large body of water surrounded by land The lake is perfect for fishing and boating.
lagoon a shallow body of water separated from the sea by sandbanks or reefs The lagoon is a great spot for snorkeling.
library a place where people can borrow books and other materials I borrowed a book from the library to read.
mall a large shopping center with many stores and shops Let's meet at the mall and do some shopping together.
market a place where people buy and sell goods and food The local market is full of fresh fruits and vegetables.
marsh an area of low-lying land that is often wet and covered in grass Birds and frogs can be found in the marsh.
meadow a field with grass and wildflowers We had a picnic in the meadow.
mosque a place of worship for Muslims We visit the mosque for Friday prayers.
mountain a high, rocky landform that rises steeply above its surroundings Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
museum a place where objects of historical, cultural or artistic interest are displayed The museum has ancient artifacts and paintings.
nature reserve a protected area where wildlife and natural resources are conserved The nature reserve is home to many rare animals.
oasis a fertile area in the desert with water and vegetation The oasis provided a refreshing stop during our desert journey.
palace a grand and impressive building where royalty or important people live or lived The king's palace is adorned with beautiful architecture.
park a large area of land with trees, grass and facilities for recreation Families enjoy picnics in the park on weekends.
peninsula a piece of land surrounded by water on three sides The peninsula has beautiful beaches on both sides.
port a place where ships load and unload goods The port is busy with cargo ships.
reef a ridge of rocks or coral in the sea, close to the surface Snorkelers can see colorful fish near the reef.
restaurant a place where people go to eat meals prepared by chefs Let's have dinner at that Italian restaurant.
river a large natural stream of water that flows into a sea or lake We went fishing in the river.
ruins the remains of a building or structure from the past The ancient ruins are fascinating to explore.
savanna a grassy plain with scattered trees, typical of tropical regions Many wild animals roam freely in the African savanna.
school a place where children go to learn The students are excited to go back to school after the summer break.
seashore the area of land along the edge of the sea We built sandcastles on the seashore.
shrine a place of religious or spiritual importance Many people visit the ancient shrine to offer prayers.
stadium a large sports arena with seats for spectators The football match will take place at the stadium.
suburb a residential area on the outskirts of a city They live in a quiet suburb with lots of green spaces.
temple a place of worship for religious traditions other than Christianity The ancient temple is visited by many pilgrims each year.
theater a place where people watch plays, shows and performances Let's go to the theater to see the new musical.
university a higher education institution where students pursue degrees She studies chemistry at the university.
valley low land between hills or mountains The beautiful valley is surrounded by snow-capped peaks.
volcano a mountain with a hole through which lava, gas and ash can erupt The volcano erupted, covering the sky with ash and smoke.
waterfall a place where water flows over the edge of a cliff The waterfall is a popular spot for tourists to take photos.
wilderness a remote and uncultivated area They went on an adventure in the wilderness and camped under the stars.
zoo a place where people can see and learn about different animals Children love to visit the zoo and see the animals.

Common Nouns for Ideas

Common Nouns for IdeasMeaningExample Sentence
ambition a strong desire to achieve something or be successful She has the ambition to become a doctor and help people.
assumption something believed to be true without enough evidence His assumption was that the bus would arrive on time.
belief a strong feeling that something is true or real Many people have a belief in the power of positive thinking.
bias a preference or unfair inclination towards something The news article showed a bias towards a particular political party.
capitalism an economic system where businesses are privately owned for profit In capitalism, individuals can start their own businesses.
communism a system where everything is shared equally among the people Under communism, the government owns most industries.
conclusion the final decision or judgment made after considering information Based on the evidence, the detective reached a conclusion about the case.
concept an idea or thought that represents something The teacher explained the concept of gravity to the students.
conviction a strong belief in something Despite the challenges, she held onto her conviction to follow her dreams.
creativity the ability to come up with new and original ideas Children often show creativity when they draw imaginative pictures.
democracy a system of government where people vote for leaders The citizens of the country participate in elections to support democracy.
dictatorship a government where one person has complete power Under the dictatorship, there was limited freedom of speech.
discrimination unfair treatment of people based on differences Laws have been put in place to prevent discrimination in the workplace.
doubt feeling unsure or uncertain about something He had doubt about his ability to pass the exam.
dream a series of thoughts and images that occur while sleeping She had a strange dream about flying over a rainbow.
emotion a strong feeling, such as happiness or sadness The movie's ending filled her with emotion and tears.
epiphany a sudden moment of understanding or realization After reading the book, he had an epiphany about the meaning of life.
equality treating everyone fairly and equally The school promotes equality by encouraging diversity among students.
ethics the moral principles that guide a person's behavior The doctor's decision was based on his strict code of ethics.
expectation a belief or hope about what will happen in the future She had high expectations for her birthday party.
faith strong trust or belief in something without proof Religious individuals are known for their strong faith.
feeling an emotional state or sensation After the win, he felt a rush of happiness.
freedom the state of being free and not restricted Many people fought for freedom from oppression.
goal something you want to achieve His goal is to become a professional football player.
hypothesis a suggested explanation that can be tested Scientists are conducting experiments to test their hypothesis.
ideology a system of beliefs or ideas The politician's ideology influenced his decisions.
imagination the ability to create mental images of things not present Children have vivid imaginations and love to play pretend.
innovation the introduction of new ideas or methods The company's innovation led to the development of groundbreaking technology.
instinct a natural feeling or behavior that is not learned Birds have the instinct to build nests for their eggs.
inspiration a feeling of motivation or creativity The beautiful landscape served as inspiration for the artist's painting.
intuition a feeling of knowing something without conscious reasoning Her intuition told her not to trust the stranger.
interpretation the explanation or understanding of something Different people may have varying interpretations of a poem.
judgment the ability to form an opinion or make a decision The judge used her judgment to determine the verdict.
justice fair treatment and equality under the law The court delivered justice to the wronged party.
knowledge information and understanding gained through learning and experience Reading books helps increase your knowledge about the world.
liberty the state of being free and having the right to do as you please People fought for liberty and independence from colonial rule.
lie a false statement told to deceive someone She told a lie to avoid getting into trouble.
logic reasoning or sound thinking based on evidence Using logic, he solved the puzzle quickly.
mathematics the scientific study of numbers and related subjects Mathematics is not my favorite subject.
misconception a mistaken belief or idea about something One common misconception is that bats are blind.
misinterpretation to understand or explain something incorrectly He misinterpreted her smile as a sign of agreement.
misunderstanding a failure to understand something correctly The misunderstanding between them led to an argument.
morality principles concerning what is right or wrong behavior Teaching children about honesty helps develop their morality.
motivation the reason or drive behind a person's actions Her love for music is her motivation to practice every day.
notion an idea or thought that represents something He had no notion of what was going on.
objective a specific goal or purpose The objective of the project is to improve environmental sustainability.
opinion a personal belief or judgment about something Everyone has a right to express their opinion.
perception the way someone sees or understands something Her perception of the movie was that it was entertaining.
perspective a particular way of looking at things The story is told from the perspective of the main character.
philosophy a set of beliefs or values about life and the world His philosophy is to treat others with kindness.
plan a detailed scheme for achieving something She made a plan to visit all the tourist attractions in the city.
possibility something that may happen or be true There is a possibility of rain tomorrow.
prejudice unfair opinions or attitudes formed without enough knowledge It is essential to challenge prejudice and treat everyone with respect.
principle a fundamental truth or law Honesty is a principle valued in many societies.
probability the likelihood of something happening The probability of winning the lottery is very low.
privacy the state of being free from public attention She valued her privacy and didn't share personal information.
progress improvement or advancement towards a goal The team made great progress in their project.
proposal a plan or suggestion put forward for consideration He presented a proposal to improve the school's facilities.
rationale the reason or explanation behind a decision or action The rationale for the new policy was to increase safety.
reasoning the process of thinking logically to reach a conclusion The detective used reasoning to solve the mystery.
revolution a significant and often sudden change The technological revolution transformed the way we communicate.
sentiment a feeling or emotion related to something The sentiment towards the new policy was mixed.
security the state of being safe from harm or danger The security guard ensures the security of the building.
solution an answer or way to solve a problem After much thought, he found a solution to the math question.
speculation the act of guessing or thinking about something without certain knowledge There was much speculation about who would win the competition.
strategy a plan of action designed to achieve a goal The team developed a strategy to win the game.
suggestion a proposal or idea put forward for consideration She made a suggestion to improve the company's productivity.
supposition an assumption or hypothesis based on limited evidence The supposition is that the experiment will yield positive results.
sustainability the ability to maintain or continue without harming the environment Many companies are working towards sustainability to protect the planet.
theory an idea or explanation that is based on evidence The theory of evolution explains how species adapt over time.
thought an idea or opinion formed in the mind Deep in thought, he contemplated the meaning of life.
trust belief in the reliability, truth, or ability of someone Mutual trust is essential in any relationship.
understanding the ability to comprehend or grasp something The teacher ensured all students had a clear understanding of the lesson.
vision a mental image of what the future will be like The CEO had a vision of expanding the company globally.
wisdom the quality of having experience, knowledge, and good judgment Grandparents are often a source of wisdom for their grandchildren.
wonder a feeling of amazement or awe As she looked at the stars, she felt a sense of wonder about the universe.
worry to feel anxious or concerned about something She couldn't help but worry about the upcoming test.

Common Nouns for Animals

Common Nouns for AnimalsMeaningExample Sentence
alligator a large reptile with a long body, short legs and a broad snout, found in swamps and rivers in the southeastern United States and China We saw an alligator sunbathing near the riverbank during our trip to Florida.
ant a tiny insect that lives in colonies and works together to build complex underground tunnels and find food The ant carries food back to its nest to share with the other ants.
bat a flying mammal that sleeps during the day and hunts insects at night using echolocation Bats are excellent at catching mosquitoes in the dark.
bear a large mammal with a thick fur coat found in many parts of the world The bear hibernates in the winter to conserve energy.
bee a flying insect that collects nectar from flowers to make honey and pollinates plants Bees play an essential role in helping flowers grow by spreading pollen.
beetle an insect with a hard shell-like covering and six legs We found a shiny green beetle crawling on the leaves.
bird a warm-blooded, flying animal with feathers, wings and a beak The colorful bird sings beautiful melodies in the morning.
butterfly a flying insect with colorful wings The butterfly gracefully fluttered from one flower to another.
cat a small domesticated carnivorous mammal with retractable claws and a love for chasing mice My cat enjoys sitting by the window and watching birds outside.
chicken a domesticated bird raised for its meat and eggs We had fried chicken for dinner, and it was delicious.
clam an animal with a shell found in sandy or muddy shores and often used for food We found several clams buried in the sand during our beach walk.
crab an animal with a broad, flat shell and pincers that lives in saltwater and freshwater environments The crab scuttled sideways along the shore, looking for food.
crocodile a large reptile with a long, powerful jaw that lives in tropical waters The crocodile quietly approached its prey near the riverbank.
cow a domesticated farm animal kept for its milk and meat The cow grazed peacefully in the pasture.
cricket an insect known for its chirping sound, especially at night We could hear the cricket's song as we sat around the campfire.
deer a graceful, hoofed mammal, commonly found in forests and meadows The deer leaped over the fence and disappeared into the woods.
duck a waterbird with a broad flat beak and webbed feet that makes a quacking sound The duck is protective of its young.
eagle a large, powerful bird of prey with excellent vision and sharp talons The eagle soared high in the sky, scanning for potential prey.
elephant a massive, herbivorous mammal with a long trunk and large tusks native to Africa and Asia The elephant used its trunk to grab branches and feed itself.
falcon a swift bird of prey, trained for hunting and known for its high-speed dives The falcon caught the mouse with incredible speed.
fish a cold-blooded aquatic vertebrate with fins and gills, living in water We saw colorful fish swimming in the coral reef during our snorkeling trip.
flamingo a tall, long-legged bird with pink feathers, commonly found in saltwater habitats The flamingo gracefully waded through the shallow waters of the lagoon.
fox a small, cunning mammal with a bushy tail The fox cleverly outwitted the farmer's attempts to catch it.
frog a small amphibian with a moist skin and powerful legs for leaping, often found near water We spotted a green frog sitting on a lily pad in the pond.
giraffe a tall, long-necked mammal with distinctive spotted patterns native to African savannas The giraffe stretched its long neck to reach the leaves on the tree.
goat a domesticated mammal with curved horns often kept for its milk and meat The goat climbed the rocky hill with ease.
goose a large waterbird with a long neck, commonly found in ponds and lakes The geese flew in a V-shape formation across the sky.
gorilla a large, powerful ape native to Africa, known for its strength and intelligence The gorilla beat its chest to display dominance.
grasshopper a hopping insect with powerful hind legs, often found in grassy areas The grasshopper leaped from blade to blade of grass.
hedgehog a small, spiny mammal that curls into a ball for protection when threatened The hedgehog rolled into a tight ball, keeping its vulnerable parts safe.
heron a long-legged wading bird with a long neck, often found near water The heron stood still, waiting patiently for a fish to catch.
hippopotamus a large, herbivorous mammal with a barrel-shaped body and short legs that lives in African rivers and lakes The hippopotamus submerged itself in the water to stay cool.
horse a strong, hoofed mammal often used for riding, pulling carts or racing She rode her horse through the meadow, enjoying the breeze.
jellyfish a gelatinous sea creature with long tentacles, often found in the ocean We need to be careful of jellyfish while swimming in the sea.
kangaroo a marsupial with powerful hind legs that is native to Australia and known for its hopping movement The kangaroo carried its joey in its pouch.
koala a small, tree-dwelling marsupial native to Australia with a rounded face and large ears The koala slept most of the day, nestled in the eucalyptus tree.
lemur a small primate native to Madagascar, known for its long tail and big eyes The lemur leaped from one tree branch to another with agility.
leopard a large, spotted big cat found in various regions of the world The leopard stealthily stalked its prey through the dense jungle.
lion a large, carnivorous cat known for its majestic appearance and loud roar The lion is often called the "king of the jungle" due to its dominance.
lizard a reptile with a long body, short legs and a tail, often found in warm environments The lizard basked in the sun to warm itself.
lobster a marine crustacean with a hard shell and large pincers, often caught for food We ordered a lobster dinner at the seaside restaurant.
louse a small, wingless insect that can be a parasite on humans and animals The louse infestation in the classroom caused concern among parents.
mammoth a large, extinct mammal with long, curved tusks that lived during the Ice Age The mammoth roamed the icy tundra during prehistoric times.
monkey a primate with a long tail and flexible limbs, often found in tropical regions The playful monkeys swung from branch to branch in the rainforest canopy.
moose a large deer with long, palmate antlers native to North America and northern Eurasia We encountered a majestic moose grazing by the lake on our hiking trip.
mosquito a small flying insect known for feeding on the blood of humans and animals The annoying mosquitoes buzzed around us during our camping trip.
moth a nocturnal insect with feathery antennae, often attracted to light A moth fluttered around the lamp.
mouse a small rodent with a pointed snout and a long tail, often found in homes The mouse nibbled on a piece of cheese left on the kitchen counter.
newt a small amphibian with bright colors, often found in or near water The newt swam gracefully in the pond, its orange belly shining brightly.
octopus a marine mollusk with a soft body and eight arms, known for its intelligence and camouflage abilities The octopus changed its color to blend in with the coral reef.
ostrich a large flightless bird with long legs and a long neck native to Africa The ostrich can run at high speeds, making it one of the fastest birds on land.
otter a semiaquatic mammal with a sleek, water-resistant coat and webbed feet The playful otter slid down the riverbank and into the water.
owl a nocturnal bird of prey with large, forward-facing eyes and silent flight The owl hooted softly from the treetop, its eyes glowing in the dark.
ox a domesticated bovine used as a working animal on farms The ox helped plow the fields, tilling the soil for planting crops.
panda a bear native to China, known for its distinctive black and white coat The panda peacefully ate bamboo leaves in the bamboo forest.
panther a large, powerful big cat with a sleek black coat The panther moved stealthily through the dense jungle, its golden eyes focused on its prey.
parrot a brightly colored bird with a curved beak, capable of mimicking human speech The parrot repeated the words it had learned from its owner, amusing everyone in the room.
peacock a large bird with a colorful, iridescent plumage, often displaying its tail feathers in a fan-like manner The peacock proudly displayed its vibrant feathers to attract a mate.
pelican a large waterbird with a long beak, known for its pouch-like throat used for catching fish The pelican dived into the water and emerged with a mouthful of fish.
penguin a flightless seabird with a black and white coat native to the Southern Hemisphere The penguin waddled clumsily on land but swam gracefully in the icy waters.
pig a domesticated mammal raised for its meat The pig happily rolled in the mud to cool down on a hot day.
pigeon a bird with a plump body and short legs, often found in urban areas A flock of pigeons gathered in the park, searching for breadcrumbs.
polar bear a large bear native to the Arctic region, known for its white fur and excellent swimming skills The polar bear gracefully glided across the ice in search of seals.
porcupine a small mammal with sharp quills on its back, which it can raise when threatened The porcupine warned potential predators by raising its quills.
possum a nocturnal marsupial with a prehensile tail native to Australia and the Americas The possum climbed the tree, using its tail for balance.
prawn a small shrimp-like crustacean, often used as seafood We enjoyed a delicious platter of grilled prawns at the seafood restaurant.
pufferfish a fish that can inflate itself into a ball when threatened, containing toxins The pufferfish displayed its defensive behavior, puffing up to deter predators.
puma a large, solitary cat native to the Americas, also known as a cougar or mountain lion The puma stealthily stalked its prey, ready to pounce.
python a non-venomous snake that can be very large, known for constricting its prey The python coiled itself around the small mammal, squeezing tightly to kill it before swallowing it whole.
quail a small game bird with a plump body and distinctive markings, often found in grasslands The quail chicks scurried behind their mother, seeking safety in the tall grass.
rabbit a small, furry mammal with long ears and powerful hind legs, often kept as a pet The rabbit hopped around the garden, nibbling on fresh vegetables.
raccoon a small, nocturnal mammal with a black mask-like pattern around its eyes The mischievous raccoon raided the trash bin in search of food.
rat a small rodent with a long tail, often considered a pest in urban areas A rat scurried along the wall, seeking shelter in the dark corners.
rattlesnake a venomous snake with a rattle at the end of its tail found in the Americas The rattlesnake warned intruders with its distinctive rattling sound.
raven a large, black bird known for its intelligence and association with myths and folklore The raven perched on a tree branch, its dark feathers gleaming in the sunlight.
reindeer a deer species with both males and females growing antlers native to northern regions Santa's sleigh is said to be pulled by reindeer on Christmas Eve.
rhinoceros a large, herbivorous mammal with one or two horns on its snout native to Africa and Asia The rhinoceros charged at the perceived threat, using its horn for defense.
robin a small bird with a red or orange breast, often associated with the arrival of spring The robin sang a cheerful song, signaling the beginning of a new season.
salamander a small amphibian with a long, slender body and a tail, often found in moist habitats The salamander hid under a damp log, away from the scorching sun.
salmon a fish that migrates between freshwater and saltwater for breeding The salmon swam upstream, returning to its birthplace to spawn.
scorpion an arachnid with a venomous stinger at the end of its tail found in warm regions We cautiously stepped back when we spotted a scorpion crawling on the ground.
seahorse a small marine fish with a horse-like head and a curled tail The seahorse swam gracefully, its tail curling around a strand of seaweed.
seal a marine mammal with flippers and a sleek body, often found on the coastlines The seal basked in the sun, occasionally slipping into the water to cool off.
shark a large predatory fish with sharp teeth found in oceans around the world The shark glided silently through the water, its presence concealed by the deep blue.
sheep a domesticated mammal raised for its wool and meat The shepherd herded the sheep to the grazing pasture for the day.
shrimp a small crustacean with a slender body, often used as seafood We ordered a plate of delicious shrimp at the seafood restaurant.
skunk a small mammal known for its ability to spray a foul-smelling liquid when threatened The skunk released its pungent spray, deterring the curious dog from getting any closer.
sloth a slow-moving mammal found in Central and South America, known for its laziness The sloth leisurely hung from a tree branch, barely moving throughout the day.
snail a small, slow-moving mollusk with a spiral shell, often found in gardens The snail left a silvery trail as it made its way across the path.
snake a long, legless reptile with scales found in various habitats around the world The snake slithered silently through the grass, searching for prey.
sparrow a small, common songbird with a brown or gray plumage The chirping of sparrows filled the air, signaling the arrival of spring.
squirrel a small, agile rodent with a bushy tail, often seen climbing trees The squirrel scurried up the tree, clutching an acorn in its paws.
starfish a marine echinoderm with five arms found in tide pools or on the seafloor The starfish slowly moved across the sandy seabed, using its tube feet to glide.
stingray a flat, diamond-shaped fish with a venomous stinger on its tail We spotted a stingray gracefully gliding through the water in the coral reef.
stork a large, long-legged bird associated with delivering babies in folklore The stork built its nest on top of the tall chimney, away from predators.
swan a large waterbird known for its elegant appearance and graceful swimming The swan glided across the tranquil lake, its reflection mirrored in the water.
swordfish a large fish with a long, pointed bill resembling a sword The swordfish sliced through the water with incredible speed, hunting its prey.
tiger a large, powerful big cat with a distinctive orange coat and black stripes The tiger prowled through the jungle, its eyes keenly searching for prey.
toad a squat, leaping amphibian with dry, warty skin The toad sat motionless, blending in perfectly with the forest floor.
tortoise a slow-moving land reptile with a high-domed shell, often kept as a pet The tortoise retreated into its shell when it sensed danger nearby.
toucan a colorful bird with a large, brightly colored beak native to Central and South America The toucan perched on the branch, its colorful beak standing out against the green foliage.
turkey a large bird native to North America, often served as the main course for Thanksgiving dinner The aroma of roasted turkey filled the air, signaling the festive holiday season.
turtle a reptile with a protective shell The turtle crawled slowly along the shore before disappearing into the water.
vulture a scavenging bird of prey, often associated with death and decay A group of vultures circled high above, searching for carrion to feast upon.
walrus a large marine mammal with long tusks and thick blubber native to the Arctic The walrus basked on an ice floe, occasionally diving into the frigid water to find food.
wasp a slender, stinging insect, often with black and yellow markings A wasp buzzed near the picnic table, causing everyone to swat it away.
weasel a small carnivorous mammal known for its slender body and quick movements The weasel darted through the grass, chasing after a mouse.
whale a large marine mammal, such as the humpback or sperm whale, known for their size and songs The whales breached the surface, putting on a spectacular show for the onlookers.
wolf a carnivorous mammal known for its pack behavior and haunting howl The wolf let out a mournful howl under the full moon.
woodpecker a bird with a strong, chisel-like beak used for drilling into trees for insects The woodpecker tapped rhythmically on the tree trunk, searching for its next meal.
worm a long, legless invertebrate that lives in the soil The worms aerated the soil as they burrowed, improving its fertility.

Common Nouns for Plants

Common Nouns for PlantsMeaningExample Sentence
acorn the small seed of an oak tree I found an acorn on the ground and picked it up.
aloe a type of plant with thick leaves My mom applied aloe gel on my sunburn to make it feel better.
apple a sweet and juicy fruit that grows on an apple tree She took a bite of the crisp red apple.
banana a long and curved fruit with a yellow skin He enjoyed eating a banana as a healthy snack.
barley a cereal grain used for making food and drinks Barley is often used in soups and stews.
basil an aromatic herb commonly used in cooking She sprinkled some fresh basil leaves on the pasta.
bay an evergreen tree with aromatic leaves used in cooking The chef added a bay leaf to the simmering soup for flavor.
bean a nutritious seed that grows inside a pod on a bean plant We harvested green beans from the garden for dinner.
birch a type of tree with smooth bark that peels off in layers The birch trees sway gently in the breeze.
broccoli a green vegetable with a tree-like shape Mom cooked delicious broccoli for a healthy dinner.
bush a small woody plant with many branches There's a colorful bush with red flowers in our backyard.
cactus a plant that stores water in its thick and fleshy stems The cactus thrives in arid desert conditions.
carrot an orange vegetable with a crunchy texture She enjoys eating baby carrots with hummus.
cauliflower a pale vegetable with a compact head of florets The cauliflower was boiled and served with cheese sauce.
cilantro an herb with fresh and flavorful leaves often used in cooking The chef garnished the dish with chopped cilantro.
chamomile a plant known for its small daisy-like flowers used to make calming tea I drink chamomile tea before bedtime to help me relax.
cherry a small red or black fruit with a stone inside She picked ripe cherries from the tree to make a pie.
chrysanthemum a flowering plant with colorful petals The chrysanthemums in the garden bloom in various shades.
coffee a beverage made from roasted coffee beans He enjoys drinking a cup of coffee in the morning.
corn a tall cereal plant that produces yellow kernels on a cob We grilled fresh corn on the cob for a summer barbecue.
cotton a soft white fiber used to make fabric and clothing The cotton was spun into yarn to make a cozy sweater.
cucumber a long green vegetable with a refreshing taste We sliced some cucumbers to add to our salad.
daisy a small flower with white petals and a yellow center She loves picking daisies and making flower crowns.
dandelion a weed with yellow flowers that produce fluffy seeds The kids blew on dandelions and watched the seeds fly away.
elm a type of tree with serrated leaves and winged seeds The elm tree provided shade in the park on a hot day.
eucalyptus a tall tree with aromatic leaves used in medicine and oils Eucalyptus leaves are the favorite food of koalas.
fern a plant with feathery leaves that reproduce through spores The fern grows in the shady part of the garden.
flower the colorful part of a plant that produces seeds She received a bouquet of beautiful flowers on her birthday.
geranium a flowering plant with rounded leaves and clusters of flowers The geraniums bloomed brightly in the flowerpot.
ginseng a plant root believed to have health benefits Ginseng is often used in traditional medicine.
grape a small fruit that grows in clusters on a vine He ate a handful of sweet grapes for dessert.
grass a green plant with narrow leaves that covers the ground The kids played soccer on the soft grass in the park.
honeysuckle a climbing plant with fragrant flowers The honeysuckle vine twined around the fence.
herb a plant used for flavoring or medicinal purposes She added some fresh herbs to the soup for extra taste.
hydrangea a shrub with large flowers that change color based on soil acidity The hydrangea bush displayed pink and blue blooms.
ivy a climbing plant with dark green leaves The ivy grew up the side of the building.
jasmine a fragrant flower used in perfumes and teas The scent of jasmine filled the air in the garden.
kiwi a small green fruit with brown skin and black seeds He peeled the kiwi and ate it for a snack.
lavender an aromatic herb with purple flowers used in scents and oils She put dried lavender flowers in a sachet for her closet.
lemon a yellow citrus fruit with sour juice The lemonade tasted tangy and refreshing.
lettuce a leafy vegetable used in salads and sandwiches She made a delicious salad with fresh lettuce.
lily a large and colorful flower with a trumpet-like shape The lily blossoms bloomed in the garden.
mango a juicy tropical fruit with a sweet flavor The ripe mango was sliced and served for dessert.
marigold a bright yellow or orange flower The marigold flowers added vibrant colors to the garden.
magnolia a tree or shrub with large fragrant flowers The magnolia tree's blossoms were stunning.
maple a tree with distinctive leaves that change color in the fall The maple tree's leaves turned red in autumn.
mint an herb with a refreshing taste often used in drinks The mint leaves were used to make a refreshing drink.
moss a small green plant that grows on rocks and trees The moss covered the stones in the shaded area.
oak a large tree with strong wood and distinctive lobed leaves The oak tree provided a lot of shade in the park.
onion a bulbous vegetable with a strong flavor She chopped some onions for the soup.
orange a round citrus fruit with a bright orange skin He peeled an orange and ate the juicy segments.
orchid a beautiful and delicate flowering plant She received a potted orchid as a gift.
palm a tree with large leaves growing at the top The palm tree swayed in the breeze on the beach.
papaya a tropical fruit with orange flesh and black seeds They enjoyed a fresh papaya for breakfast.
parsley an herb used as a garnish or flavoring The chef sprinkled some chopped parsley on the dish.
pea a small round green seed that grows in a pod on a pea plant The peas were steamed and served with butter.
peony a large and showy flower The peony blooms were a beautiful sight in the garden.
pine a type of tree with needle-like leaves The pine tree stood tall in the forest.
pineapple a tropical fruit with a spiky skin and sweet juicy flesh The pineapple slices were served as a dessert.
pansy a small colorful flower with distinctive markings She planted some pansies in the flowerbed.
poppy a flower with showy petals and a center containing seeds The red poppies grew wild in the meadow.
potato an edible starchy tuber She baked some potatoes for dinner.
primrose a small delicate flower with bright petals The primroses bloomed in the early spring.
pumpkin a large round orange fruit often used for carving and cooking They carved a scary face on the pumpkin for Halloween.
radish a small crisp vegetable with a peppery flavor The radishes added a zesty taste to the salad.
redwood a tall evergreen tree with reddish-brown bark The redwood trees in the forest were enormous.
rice a cereal grain commonly used as a staple food We cooked some rice to go with the curry.
rose a fragrant flower with thorny stems He gave her a bouquet of red roses on Valentine's Day.
rye a cereal grain used for making bread and whiskey Rye bread has a distinctive flavor and texture.
sage an herb with grayish-green leaves used in cooking The roasted chicken was seasoned with sage and thyme.
sunflower a tall plant with large yellow flowers The sunflowers swayed in the breeze in the field.
saffron an expensive spice derived from the crocus flower Saffron adds a rich golden color and flavor to dishes.
strawberry a sweet red fruit with small seeds and a green leafy cap We enjoyed fresh strawberries with whipped cream.
tulip a bulbous flower with cup-shaped petals The colorful tulips bloomed in the spring garden.
tomato a red fruit with juicy flesh used in cooking and salads She sliced some ripe tomatoes for the sandwich.
thyme an herb with small aromatic leaves used in cooking Thyme adds a wonderful aroma to roasted vegetables.
turnip a round root vegetable with a white or purple skin She added some diced turnip to the stew for extra flavor.
vanilla a flavoring extracted from the vanilla orchid flower He loves the taste of vanilla in ice cream.
violet a small purple or blue flower with heart-shaped leaves The violet blossoms added color to the garden.
walnut a nut with a hard shell that grows on a walnut tree They cracked open the walnuts and enjoyed the tasty kernels inside.
watermelon a large juicy fruit with a green rind and red flesh They chilled slices of watermelon for a refreshing snack.
willow a tree with long flexible branches The branches of the willow tree swayed gracefully in the breeze.
wheat a cereal grain used for making flour and bread The field was filled with golden wheat ready for harvest.
yam a starchy edible tuber She cooked some yams as a side dish for dinner.

Common Nouns for Events

Common Nouns for EventsMeaningExample Sentence
anniversary the yearly celebration of a past event They had a special dinner to celebrate their 25th wedding anniversary.
auction a public sale where items are sold to the highest bidder He won the antique vase at the auction last week.
baptism a religious ceremony involving water to welcome someone into a faith The baptism took place at the local church.
battle a fight between opposing forces or groups The soldiers fought bravely in the battle to defend their homeland.
campaign an organized effort to achieve a specific goal, often in politics The politician launched a campaign to improve the city's schools.
celebration a joyful event or gathering to mark a special occasion There was a big celebration for her birthday with cake and balloons.
ceremony a formal event with specific rituals or traditions The graduation ceremony was held in the school auditorium.
commemoration a special event to remember or honor something important The city organized a commemoration to honor the veterans.
competition a contest where people or teams try to win The children participated in a drawing competition at school.
conference a meeting where people discuss specific topics or issues She attended a business conference to learn about new strategies.
cruise a trip on a ship for pleasure or vacation They went on a cruise to explore different islands.
demonstration a public display or protest to show support or opposition The students held a demonstration to raise awareness about climate change.
exhibition a public display of art, objects, or items Many people visited the art exhibition to see the paintings.
fair an event with games, rides, and vendors selling goods The kids had a lot of fun at the local fair, especially on the merry-go-round.
festival a joyful event with music, dancing, and various activities The town organizes a music festival every summer.
fundraiser an event to collect money for a specific cause or charity The school held a fundraiser to buy books for the library.
gala a fancy and formal celebration or party They dressed up for the charity gala at the fancy hotel.
graduation the ceremony when students complete their studies and receive diplomas He was excited to attend his sister's graduation from college.
honeymoon a trip taken by newlyweds after their wedding They went to a beautiful island for their honeymoon.
inauguration a formal ceremony marking the beginning of a new position or venture The president's inauguration took place in the capital city.
lecture a talk or speech on a specific topic The professor gave a lecture on history to the students.
marathon a long-distance running race of 26.2 miles (42.2 km) She trained hard for months to participate in the marathon.
meeting a gathering where people come together to discuss or plan something The team had a meeting to discuss the project's progress.
negotiation the process of discussing and reaching an agreement between parties The two countries entered into negotiations to resolve the conflict.
networking the act of meeting and connecting with people for professional or social reasons She attended a networking event to expand her business contacts.
parade a public procession often celebrating a special occasion The city held a colorful parade on Independence Day.
party a gathering of people to celebrate or have fun together They threw a surprise party for her birthday.
performance a display of skill or talent, often in music, theater or sports The band gave a fantastic performance at the concert.
picnic an outdoor meal or gathering in a park or countryside The family had a picnic and enjoyed the sunny weather.
seminar a meeting or class for discussion and learning about a specific topic The seminar focused on improving communication skills.
symposium a conference or meeting where experts discuss a particular subject Scientists from around the world attended the environmental symposium.
truce a temporary pause in hostilities during a conflict The countries signed a truce to stop fighting and begin peace talks.
vacation a time of rest and leisure away from work or home They went on a beach vacation to relax and enjoy the sun.
war a state of armed conflict between different countries or groups Many soldiers fought bravely during the war to defend their nation.
wedding a ceremony where two people get married The couple had a beautiful wedding ceremony with all their friends and family.


Verbs are action words. Remember that English verbs sometimes change their spelling depending on the subject and tense of the sentence.

Regular Verbs

Regular verbs follow a standard pattern to form their past tense and past participle by adding “-ed” to the base form (infinitive). For example,  play would be  played in the past tense and past participle.

English Regular VerbsPast Tense/Past Participle FormMeaningExample Sentence
accept accepted to agree to take something offered He accepted the gift from his friend.
act acted to perform a particular action The children acted out a funny play at school.
answer answered to reply or respond to a question She answered the phone when it rang.
arrive arrived to reach a destination or place you want to come to The train arrived at the station on time.
ask asked to pose a question He asked his teacher for help with the homework.
bake baked to cook in an oven She baked delicious cookies for her family.
believe believed to have confidence in something as true They believed the story the teacher told them.
call called to use one's voice to get someone's attention He called his friend to come and play outside.
clean cleaned to make something tidy and free of dirt She cleaned her room before her parents came home.
climb climbed to go up something using hands and feet The kids climbed the tree to get a better view.
close closed to shut something Please close the door before you leave.
cook cooked to prepare food by heating it Mom cooked dinner every evening.
dance danced to move to music They danced at the party and had a great time.
enjoy enjoyed to take pleasure in something They enjoyed their day at the beach.
explain explained to make something clear The teacher explained the lesson to the students.
finish finished to complete or reach the end of something He finished his homework before dinner.
fix fixed to repair something Dad fixed the broken toy.
follow followed to go after or come after something The dog followed its owner around the house.
help helped to assist or give support She helped her friend with the heavy bags.
hope hoped to wish for something to happen I hope we have a sunny day for the picnic.
jump jumped to leap off the ground The rabbit jumped over the fence.
kiss kissed to touch with lips as a sign of affection They kissed each other goodbye.
learn learned to acquire knowledge or skill The students learned new things in school every day.
like liked to find something enjoyable or pleasing She liked to read books in her free time.
listen listened to pay attention to sounds The children listened to their favorite songs.
live lived to stay in a place, usually a home They live in a big house on the corner.
look looked to direct one's gaze Look at the beautiful sunset!
love loved to have a strong affection for someone or something They love spending time together.
move moved to change position or location The furniture moved to a new house.
need needed to require something essential We need food and water to survive.
open opened to make something accessible or visible Please open the door for me.
paint painted to apply color to a surface She painted a picture of her family.
play played to engage in an activity for enjoyment The children played games in the park.
remember remembered to recall information from memory He remembered his friend's birthday.
repair repaired to fix something that is broken They repaired the car engine.
save saved to keep something for later use He saved his money to buy a new toy.
shout shouted to speak loudly They shouted with joy when they won the game.
show showed to display or exhibit something She showed her artwork to the class.
smile smiled to express happiness with the mouth The baby smiled at her mother.
start started to begin or commence an action They started the race as soon as the whistle blew.
stay stayed to remain in one place They stayed at the hotel during their vacation.
study studied to learn and examine information He studied for the test all night.
talk talked to communicate using speech They talked about their plans for the weekend.
travel traveled to go on a journey They traveled to a new country for their vacation.
try tried to attempt to do something She tried to solve the puzzle.
turn turned to change direction or position He turned left at the intersection.
use used to employ or utilize something She used a computer for her school projects.
visit visited to go and see someone or something They visited their grandparents over the weekend.
wait waited to stay in a place until something happens They waited for the bus to arrive.
walk walked to move on foot The family walked in the park on a sunny day.
watch watched to look at something attentively They watched a movie at the cinema.
work worked to perform tasks for a specific purpose He works at a restaurant as a waiter.
yawn yawned to open the mouth wide involuntarily, usually when tired She yawned after a long day at school.
zip zipped to fasten or close with a zipper She zipped her jacket before going outside.

Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs do not follow the standard pattern to form their past tense and past participle. For example, go becomes  went in the past tense and  gone in the past participle.

English Irregular VerbsPast Tense FormPast Participle FormMeaningExample Sentence
begin began begun to start or commence something The movie began at 8 PM.
break broke broken to separate into pieces He broke his phone.
bring brought brought to carry something or someone with you Sarah brought her dog to the park.
build built built to construct or make They built a new house in the neighborhood.
buy bought bought to acquire something by paying money for it She bought a new dress for the party.
catch caught caught to capture or seize something He caught the ball.
choose chose chosen to select or pick something They chose the blue car.
come came come to move toward the speaker or the speaker's location They came to visit us last weekend.
do did done to perform an action She did her homework.
drink drank drunk to consume liquid He drank a glass of water.
drive drove driven to operate a vehicle She drove the car carefully.
eat ate eaten to consume food They ate pizza for dinner.
fall fell fallen to drop or descend to the ground The leaves fell from the tree.
feel felt felt to sense or experience an emotion He felt happy when he received the gift.
find found found to discover or locate something She found her lost keys.
fly flew flown to travel through the air The bird flew high in the sky.
forget forgot forgotten to fail to remember I forgot my umbrella at home.
get got got to acquire or receive They got a new puppy.
give gave given to transfer ownership or present something to someone She gave him a present.
go went gone to move away from the speaker or the speaker's location They went to the beach.
grow grew grown to increase in size or develop The plants grew quickly.
have had had to possess or hold something She had a great time at the party.
hear heard heard to perceive sound He heard the music playing.
hide hid hidden to conceal or keep something out of sight They hid the treasure.
hit hit hit to strike or collide with something The baseball hit the window.
hold held held to grasp or cling to something She held her sister's hand.
keep kept kept to retain or have something in possession They kept the book.
know knew known to be aware of or familiar with something I knew the answer to the question.
learn learned learned to gain knowledge or skill He learned a new skill.
leave left left to go away from a place They left the party early.
lose lost lost to misplace or be unable to find She lost her keys.
make made made to create or produce They made a delicious cake.
meet met met to encounter or come across someone or something We met a friend at the mall.
pay paid paid to give money in exchange for goods or services She paid for her meal.
put put put to place or position something He put the keys on the table.
read read read to look at and comprehend written or printed material She read the book in one sitting.
ride rode ridden to travel on a vehicle or animal They rode their bikes to the park.
run ran run to move quickly on foot He ran to catch the bus.
say said said to utter words or express something She said hello to everyone.
see saw seen to perceive with the eyes I saw a movie last night.
sell sold sold to transfer ownership in exchange for money He sold his old phone.
send sent sent to cause to go or be taken to another place She sent a letter to her friend.
sing sang sung to produce musical sounds with the voice They sang a song together.
sit sat sat to rest on one's buttocks She sat on the chair.
sleep slept slept to rest in a state of unconsciousness I slept well last night.
speak spoke spoken to communicate verbally He spoke to the audience.
swim swam swum to move through water using the arms and legs They swam in the pool.
take took taken to hold or grip something She took the book from the shelf.
teach taught taught to give knowledge or instruction He taught the class.
tell told told to communicate information She told me a story.
think thought thought to have a belief or opinion I thought about the question.
throw threw thrown to propel something through the air She threw the ball.
understand understood understood to comprehend or grasp the meaning He understood the instructions.
wake woke woken to emerge from sleep or become awake She woke up early.
wear wore worn to have clothing on the body He wore a suit to the event.
write wrote written to create words or text on paper or a screen They wrote a letter.

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary verbs, or helping verbs, are used with the main verb to provide additional information about the action or state expressed in the sentence. Auxiliary verbs do not mean anything on their own but serve to change the meaning of the main verb.

English Auxiliary VerbsWhat It's Used ForExample Sentence
be Communicates the existence or state of something Everyone wants to be free.
have Shows ownership or indicate something you need to do I have a meeting today. (indicates ownership)
I have to go grocery shopping because there is no food in the house. (indicates something you need to do)
do Talks about completing an action I will do my work.
will Forms the future tense He will arrive tomorrow.
shall Makes suggestions or offers in the future Shall we go for a walk?
can Expresses ability or permission She can swim well.
could Expresses past ability or possibility I could speak two languages when I was younger.
should Gives advice or make recommendations You should study for the exam.
would Expresses a polite request or talk about hypothetical situations Would you like some tea?
must Expresses obligation or necessity They must finish their homework.
ought to Gives advice or make suggestions You ought to apologize for your mistake.

You can check out this video for more examples of common English verbs:


Adjectives are words that describe or modify a noun.

English AdjectivesMeaningExample Sentence
absent-minded forgetful or not paying attention to what is happening around you Sarah is so absent-minded that she often forgets where she put her keys.
adorable extremely cute and lovable Look at the adorable puppies playing in the park.
amiable friendly and pleasant, easy to get along with The new neighbor seems very amiable; she greeted everyone with a smile.
anxious feeling worried or nervous about something that might happen Tom felt anxious before his exam because he hadn't studied enough.
arrogant having an exaggerated sense of self-importance, thinking highly of oneself The arrogant actor refused to sign autographs for his fans.
awkward clumsy or uncomfortable in social situations Sally felt awkward at the party because she didn't know anyone there.
beautiful attractive, pleasing to the senses The sunset over the ocean was a beautiful sight to behold.
big something that is greater in size The elephant is a big animal.
boring not interesting or exciting The movie was so boring that many people fell asleep while watching it.
brave showing courage and not afraid of facing danger The firefighters were brave as they rescued people from the burning building.
bubbly full of enthusiasm and energy, cheerful Anna is always bubbly and makes everyone around her smile.
calm peaceful and relaxed, not agitated After taking a deep breath, Mary felt calm and ready to face the challenge.
careful taking precautions and paying attention to avoid mistakes or accidents Be careful while crossing the road to avoid any accidents.
chaotic extremely disorderly and confusing The classroom was chaotic after the students finished their exams.
charming pleasant and attractive, having a likable quality The little girl had a charming smile that won everyone's heart.
clean free from dirt, stains, or unpleasant odors The kitchen was clean after Mary spent hours tidying it up.
clear easy to understand, transparent The teacher gave clear instructions for the homework.
clumsy awkward in movement, often causing accidents or dropping things He is so clumsy that he tripped over his own shoelaces.
cold having a low temperature, opposite of hot It's so cold outside; don't forget to wear a warm jacket.
cozy warm and comfortable, giving a feeling of relaxation The cabin in the mountains was cozy, with a fireplace and soft blankets.
creative having the ability to come up with new ideas or artistic expressions Emily's creative artwork impressed everyone at the art exhibition.
cruel willfully causing pain or suffering to others It's cruel to tease or bully someone just because they are different.
cynical distrusting or doubting the sincerity of others' intentions After several disappointments, Jack became cynical about love.
delicate fragile and easily broken or damaged Handle the glass vase with care; it's delicate and valuable.
delightful giving pleasure and enjoyment The picnic in the park was delightful; the weather was perfect.
destructive causing harm or damage The storm was destructive; it uprooted many trees and damaged houses.
different not the same as others I look and feel different after going to the salon.
dirty not clean, covered in dirt or grime Please wash your dirty hands.
disinterested not having any personal interest or involvement in something The disinterested judge listened to the case without any bias.
dishonest not truthful, prone to lying or deceiving others It's not right to be dishonest and cheat on a test.
eager excited and enthusiastic about doing or achieving something The kids were eager to open their presents on Christmas morning.
elegant graceful and stylish in appearance or behavior She looked elegant in her long, flowing gown at the formal event.
eloquent fluent and expressive in speech or writing Martin Luther King Jr.'s speeches were eloquent and inspiring.
energetic full of vitality and enthusiasm The puppy was so energetic; it ran around the yard all day.
exciting thrilling and full of excitement or adventure Going on a roller coaster ride can be an exciting experience.
fake not genuine or authentic, pretending to be something it's not The detective discovered that the painting was fake, not an original.
foolish lacking good sense or judgment, silly It's foolish to go out without an umbrella when it's raining heavily.
forgetful prone to forgetting things or details Grandma sometimes gets forgetful and misplaces her glasses.
fragile easily broken or damaged, delicate The antique vase was so fragile that it had to be handled with care.
fierce very strong or powerful, intense The fierce lion roared loudly in the jungle.
funny causing laughter or amusement, humorous The comedian's jokes were so funny that the audience couldn't stop laughing.
generous willing to give or share, kind in actions or behavior Mark is generous; he often donates to charity and helps others in need.
gentle mild and kind in nature, not rough or harsh The gentle touch of the mother calmed the crying baby.
giddy feeling light-headed or giddy, often due to excitement or happiness After winning the game, the kids were giddy with joy.
glamorous attractive and stylish, associated with luxury and elegance The actress looked glamorous on the red carpet in her designer gown.
good something that is favorable or beneficial Her grades were good enough to get her into university.
graceful elegant and smooth in movement, possessing poise The ballerina's graceful performance captivated the audience.
gullible easily fooled or deceived, believing things too easily The gullible person fell for the scam and lost all their money.
happy feeling joy and contentment The children were happy to play in the park on a sunny day.
harsh severe and unkind, having a rough or unpleasant effect The teacher's harsh words hurt the student's feelings.
hasty done quickly and without much thought, often resulting in mistakes Don't make hasty decisions; take your time to consider all options.
honest truthful and sincere, not lying or deceiving John was honest and admitted that he made a mistake.
humble not boastful or arrogant, showing modesty Despite his success, the humble actor remained down-to-earth.
impatient unable to wait calmly, wanting something to happen quickly The impatient child kept asking, "Are we there yet?" during the car ride.
indifferent having a lack of interest or concern, not caring The indifferent attitude of the shopkeeper drove away potential customers.
insecure lacking self-confidence and feeling unsure about oneself The new student felt insecure on the first day of school.
insensitive unaware or indifferent to the feelings of others, not considerate It's insensitive to make jokes about someone's appearance.
inquisitive curious and eager to learn about things The inquisitive child asked many questions about the stars.
jaded tired and bored of something, often due to having too much of it After years of traveling, the seasoned traveler felt jaded and wanted to settle down.
jittery nervous or anxious, feeling uneasy He felt jittery before his speech in front of a large audience.
jovial cheerful and full of joy The family had a jovial dinner together, sharing stories and laughter.
kind showing compassion and consideration for others, gentle The kind lady helped the lost child find his way home.
lazy disinclined to work or move, preferring to do nothing On weekends, Sarah likes to be lazy and stay in bed late.
lucky having good fortune or being favored by chance The lucky lottery winner couldn't believe their luck.
melancholic feeling sad or sorrowful, often with a sense of nostalgia The melancholic song reminded her of her childhood days.
mysterious puzzling or difficult to understand, with an air of secrecy The old abandoned house had a mysterious aura about it.
new something that has recently come into existence She bought her new clothes from a famous store.
noisy loud and causing a lot of sound The playground was noisy with children playing and laughing.
obvious easily seen or understood, clear It was obvious that Sarah was upset because she was crying.
optimistic having a positive outlook on life, expecting good things to happen Despite the challenges, Tom remained optimistic about the future.
organized arranged in a structured and orderly manner Her neatly organized desk made it easy to find everything she needed.
patient able to wait calmly without getting annoyed or anxious The doctor was patient and took the time to explain the treatment.
perceptive having keen insight and understanding, observant The perceptive detective noticed the small clues that others missed.
playful full of fun and a desire to play The playful kittens chased each other around the room.
polite showing good manners and consideration for others Always remember to be polite and say "please" and "thank you."
powerful having great strength or influence, strong The superhero had powerful abilities to save the city from villains.
precious of great value or highly cherished The diamond ring was precious and held sentimental value for the family.
proud feeling a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction The proud parents watched their child receive an award.
quiet making little or no noise, peaceful and calm The library is a quiet place where people can study and read in silence.
rude showing a lack of respect or consideration for others It's rude to talk loudly on your phone in a crowded restaurant.
silly foolish or showing a lack of good sense The silly clown made everyone laugh with his funny antics.
smart intelligent and quick-witted The smart student easily solved the challenging math problem.
sneaky behaving in a secretive or deceitful manner The sneaky cat quietly stole a piece of fish from the kitchen counter.
sore painful, usually because of injury or overuse After running a marathon, the athlete's legs were sore and needed rest.
strict enforcing rules and discipline, not lenient The strict teacher didn't tolerate any disruptions in class.
strong having great physical power or mental fortitude The weightlifter demonstrated strong muscles as he lifted the heavy barbell.
sturdy strong and firmly built, able to withstand rough treatment The sturdy oak table had been in the family for generations.
tall having a greater height than average The tall basketball player could easily reach the hoop.
tardy late or delayed in arrival or completion Jane was tardy for class because she missed her bus.
thoughtful considerate and showing concern for others' feelings and needs Sarah sent a thoughtful gift to her friend on her birthday.
thoughtless not showing consideration for others, careless It was thoughtless of him to leave the door open during a storm.
thrifty careful with money and resources, economical She was thrifty and always looked for discounts before making a purchase.
tough strong and resilient, able to withstand difficulty or hardship The tough hiker climbed the steep mountain trail with determination.
tense anxious and uptight, often due to stress or nervousness The tense atmosphere in the room eased once the important presentation was over.
unlucky experiencing bad luck or unfortunate events He felt unlucky as he missed the winning lottery numbers by one digit.
victorious experiencing triumph or success The team felt victorious after winning the championship game.
vigilant watchful and alert, keeping an eye out for danger The security guard remained vigilant throughout the night to protect the building.
vivacious lively and full of energy Her vivacious personality made her the life of the party.
witty clever and quick in thinking, able to make amusing or clever remarks The witty comedian had the audience laughing throughout the show.

Many of the adjectives you will encounter are descriptive as shown above. However, there are many other types of adjectives you should know—such as possessive and distributive adjectives.

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive adjectives are adjectives that answer the question “Who or what does something belong to?” Unlike possessive pronouns, possessive adjectives do not replace a noun; instead, they describe a noun.

English Possessive AdjectivesMeaning or UsageExample Sentence
my indicates ownership by the speaker This is my book.
your indicates ownership by the listener Your car is parked over there.
his indicates ownership by a male person His phone is ringing.
her indicates ownership by a female person She is holding her umbrella.
its indicates ownership by an inanimate object or animal The cat is licking its paws.
our indicates ownership by the speaker and others We love our new house.
their indicates ownership by a group of people Their dog is very friendly.

Distributive Adjectives

Distributive adjectives are words that refer to individual members of a group or distribute an action or quality among the members of a group.

English Distributive AdjectivesMeaning and UsageExample Sentence
each refers to every individual member of a group, one by one Each student in the class received a book as a prize.
every refers to all the members of a group Every child loves to play in the park.
either refers to one of the two members of a group or both members separately You can choose either the blue or the green shirt.
neither refers to not one of the two members of a group or both members not separately Neither of the candidates won the election.
both refers to the two members of a group together Both sisters are talented musicians.
all refers to the entire group as a whole, including all the members All students must attend the assembly.
any refers to one, some, or all members of a group without specifying a particular one You can buy any of these books for your project.
some refers to an unspecified number or portion of the members of a group Some people enjoy spicy food.


Adverbs are words that describe or modify a verb, adjective or another adverb. They are different from adjectives in that adjectives can only modify nouns, but not other words.

Below are the most common types of adverbs you will encounter.   

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner describe how an action is performed or the manner in which something happens. They often end in “-ly” and modify verbs.

Adverbs of MannerMeaningExample Sentence
abruptly suddenly or quickly, without warning She stopped talking abruptly when the teacher entered the classroom.
accidentally by mistake or unintentionally He accidentally spilled his drink on the table.
angrily in a way that shows strong displeasure or irritation The little girl stomped her feet angrily when she couldn't have a cookie.
anxiously nervously or with worry He waited anxiously for the test results.
awkwardly in a clumsy or uncomfortable manner He tried to dance, but he moved awkwardly on the dance floor.
badly poorly or in an unsatisfactory way She played the piano badly, hitting the wrong keys.
beautifully in a way that is very pleasing or attractive The flowers bloomed beautifully in the garden.
boldly fearlessly or with confidence He spoke boldly in front of a large audience.
briskly quickly and energetically The old man walked briskly in the park every morning.
carefully with great attention or caution She handled the fragile vase carefully.
cheerfully in a happy and positive manner The children sang cheerfully during the school performance.
clearly in a way that is easy to understand or see She spoke slowly and clearly so everyone could hear.
closely near or in proximity to something The cat followed the mouse closely.
curiously in a way that shows interest or wanting to know more The little boy looked curiously at the strange object.
deliberately intentionally or on purpose He deliberately stayed up late to finish his project.
differently in a way that is not the same as others Each person approached the problem differently.
eagerly with enthusiasm or excitement The children eagerly opened their presents on Christmas morning.
easily without difficulty or effortlessly She solved the puzzle easily.
efficiently in a way that gets things done well and quickly The new system allowed them to work more efficiently.
elegantly gracefully or with refinement The ballerina moved elegantly across the stage.
enthusiastically with great interest and excitement The fans cheered enthusiastically for their favorite team.
fearfully in a scared or afraid manner The child looked fearfully at the dark room.
freely without restraint or restriction The birds flew freely in the sky.
graciously in a polite and courteous manner She graciously thanked her host for the delicious dinner.
happily in a joyful or contented manner The children played happily in the park.
hesitantly with uncertainty or reluctance She answered hesitantly when asked about her plans.
honestly in a truthful and sincere manner He honestly admitted his mistake.
hungrily full of hunger The child hungrily ate their food.
incredibly to a remarkable or unbelievable degree The magician performed incredibly impressive tricks.
indifferently without interest or concern She shrugged indifferently at the news.
joyfully in a joyful and happy manner They danced joyfully at the celebration.
lazily in a relaxed or idle manner The cat stretched lazily in the sun.
loudly in a high volume or noisy manner The kids laughed loudly at the funny joke.
lovingly with affection or care She hugged her pet lovingly.
nervously in a worried or anxious manner He tapped his fingers nervously on the table.
patiently with tolerance and endurance She waited patiently for her friend to arrive.
politely in a respectful and courteous manner He said politely, "Please, may I have some water?"
powerfully with strength or force The athlete threw the discus powerfully in the competition.
quickly in a fast or speedy manner She ran quickly to catch the bus.
quietly in a low volume or hushed manner The librarian reminded everyone to speak quietly in the library.
rapidly in a fast and speedy way The water flowed rapidly down the river.
reluctantly with hesitation or unwillingness He reluctantly agreed to help with the chores.
rudely in an impolite or disrespectful manner The customer spoke rudely to the waiter.
sadly in a sorrowful or unhappy manner She looked sadly at the old photograph.
seriously in a sincere or solemn way. He seriously asked for advice about his future career.
silently in a quiet or noiseless manner. The ninja moved silently through the darkness.
sincerely with genuine honesty or authenticity She expressed her gratitude sincerely in the thank-you note.
slowly in a leisurely or unhurried manner He walked slowly through the park, enjoying the scenery.
smoothly in a fluid and even way The car glided smoothly along the highway.
softly in a gentle or quiet manner. She whispered softly to avoid waking the baby.
thoughtfully in a reflective and considerate manner He gazed at the painting thoughtfully, pondering its meaning.

Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of time indicate when or how often an action takes place.

Adverbs of TimeMeaningExample Sentence
ago in the past; before the present time He left the house five minutes ago.
daily occurring or done every day The newspaper is delivered to our house daily.
early before the expected time; at or near the beginning She woke up early to catch the first bus.
eventually after some time or at a later point; in the end With hard work, he eventually learned to play the guitar.
frequently happening often; at frequent intervals The teacher frequently praises students for their good work.
later at a time subsequent to the present or an earlier time We will have dinner later when Dad comes home.
monthly happening or done once a month They pay their rent monthly.
never not at any time; not ever She never eats spicy food because she doesn't like it.
now at the present moment; immediately We're busy now, but we can talk later.
often many times; frequently He often goes for a walk in the evening.
once on one occasion only; one time I saw that movie once, and I really enjoyed it.
rarely not often; infrequently They rarely go out to eat at fancy restaurants.
recently not long ago; in the recent past I saw her at the mall recently.
seldom rarely; not often They seldom visit their relatives who live far away.
sometimes occasionally; now and then Sometimes I like to take a long walk in the park.
soon in a short time; before long The movie will start soon, so get your popcorn ready.
still up to and including the present or the time mentioned It's late, but she's still working on her homework.
then at that time; afterward We went to the beach, and then we had a picnic.
today on the present day; this day Today is a beautiful day for a picnic.
tomorrow on the day following the present day We will visit the zoo tomorrow.
usually in most cases; generally He usually wears a hat when it's sunny outside.
weekly happening or done once a week The students have a weekly spelling test.
yesterday on the day before the present day She watched a movie at the cinema yesterday.
yet until now; so far Have you finished your homework yet?

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place indicate where an action takes place or the location of something. They answer questions like “where.”

Adverbs of PlaceMeaningExample Sentence
abroad in a foreign country or overseas My friend is studying abroad in France to learn French.
above at a higher position Hang the picture above the sofa, please.
away at a distance from a particular place The nearest restroom is just a short walk away from here.
backward in the opposite direction to usual He fell backward when he slipped on the wet floor.
below at a lower position The keys are below the bookshelf, on the small table.
beside next to or by the side of something Please sit beside me; there's an empty chair here.
between in the space separating two objects or locations The playground is between the school and the park.
beyond at a point or place further away than another The mountains are beyond the river; we can't see them from here.
close at a short distance away The supermarket is close to my house, so I often shop there.
downstairs on or to a lower floor or level in a building The kitchen is downstairs, where we prepare meals.
east in the direction of the East The sun rises in the east every morning.
far at a considerable distance away The park is far from here, so we need to take the bus.
here in or at this place Come here and sit next to me.
home at one's place of residence I can't wait to go home and relax after school.
in front of facing or ahead of something The playground is in front of the school building.
inside within the limits or boundaries of something It's raining outside, so let's stay inside the house.
nearby at a short distance away There's a nice café nearby where we can have coffee.
north in the direction of the North Canada is north of the United States.
on top of positioned over or above something Place the vase on top of the table.
outside beyond the limits or boundaries of something The children are playing outside in the garden.
sideways in a direction to the side; horizontally The crab moved sideways along the sandy beach.
south in the direction of the South It's warmer in the south during the winter.
there in or at that place The bus stop is over there, near the big tree.
under positioned below or beneath something The cat is hiding under the bed.
upstairs on or to a higher floor or level in a building My room is upstairs, on the second floor.
west in the direction of the West The sun sets in the west, painting the sky orange.
within inside the boundaries or limits of something The keys are within the drawer.
without outside the boundaries or limits of something You can't play outside without your jacket; it's cold.
yonder at or in a distant place Look yonder, where the mountains meet the sky.

Adverbs of Degree

Adverbs of degree modify adjectives or other adverbs to indicate the intensity, extent or degree of something. They answer questions like “how much” or “to what extent.”

Adverbs of DegreeMeaningExample Sentence
almost nearly; not quite The bus is almost full.
barely only just; almost not She barely passed the exam.
completely totally; entirely The project was completely successful.
entirely wholly; completely The book was entirely different from the movie.
extremely to a very high degree The view from the mountain top was extremely beautiful.
fairly reasonably; moderately The price of the product was fairly affordable.
hardly barely; almost not at all The room was so dark; I could hardly see anything.
highly to a great extent; with much praise He is highly skilled at playing the guitar.
just exactly; precisely He arrived just in time for the meeting.
merely only; simply It's merely a suggestion, not a requirement.
mostly mainly; for the most part The day was mostly sunny.
nearly close to; almost We are nearly there.
partially to some extent; not completely The task was only partially completed.
quite to a moderate extent; somewhat The movie was quite interesting.
rather somewhat; to a certain extent The dress was rather expensive.
really truly; in actuality She is really talented at singing.
simply merely; only She simply forgot about the meeting.
slightly to a small extent; somewhat The coffee is slightly bitter.
too to an excessive extent The water was too cold to swim.
utterly completely; totally The idea was utterly ridiculous.
very to a great extent or high degree The cake was very delicious.

Adverbs of Certainty

Adverbs of certainty indicate the level of certainty or doubt about an action or statement.

Adverbs of CertaintyMeaningExample Sentence
absolutely completely or without a doubt "I absolutely love ice cream!"
certainly without a doubt or definitely "Can you help me with my homework?" " Certainly!"
definitely certainly or for sure It will definitely rain later, so take an umbrella.
inevitably unavoidably or bound to happen With such dark clouds, rain is inevitably coming.
invariably always or without changing The bakery's pastries are invariably delicious.
likely probably or with a good chance of happening It's likely to snow tomorrow, so wear warm clothes.
maybe possibly or perhaps I'm not sure yet; maybe I'll go to the party.
may used to express permission or possibility May I use your phone to make a call?
might used to express possibility or uncertainty I might go to the park later if the weather is nice.
must used to express necessity or strong certainty You must finish your chores before you can play.
perhaps possibly or maybe Perhaps we'll see each other again someday.
probably most likely or likely to happen It will probably be sunny tomorrow, so bring your sunglasses.
surely with confidence or undoubtedly You will surely enjoy the movie; it's very funny.
unquestionably without a doubt or certainly The team's victory was unquestionably well-deserved.
undeniably without a doubt or unquestionably The view from the top of the mountain is undeniably beautiful.
undoubtedly without question or certainly The little boy is undoubtedly excited about his birthday.


The words below can serve multiple purposes and may be categorized differently depending on context. We will focus on the most common uses of each word below.


The word not helps express negation. It explains the absence of a thing, action, state of being, etc.

It will not rain today.

She is not at work.


Okay, here is a weird one.

No native English speaker would tell you that n’t is a word. However, since it is used so frequently to show negation, it gets its own space in the Corpus of Contemporary American English word list.

Adding n’t to the end of words shows when not is being used as a contraction.

When combining not with another word, not is shortened to n’t. It is then added onto the end of the other word. This creates a new word.

For example, the two words is and not are combined to make the contraction isn’t.

I can’t study today.

My mail hasn’t arrived.

Why Is It Helpful to Learn Common English Words?

It is no good knowing big and complicated words if you do not understand the small and simple ones.

Think of common English words as the building blocks of language. They allow you to build many different types of sentences. You will use them again and again to express basic ideas in English.

Knowing common English words also helps you better understand English speakers. Otherwise, you will have a big gap in your English comprehension.

Finally, it is important to study common English words because it can be easy to mix them up. Some of them look very similar or have similar meanings. Others may be hard to explain or may have slightly different meanings when used in different contexts.

Learning common English words is especially when you’re starting out and studying English for beginners.

Practical Activities to Help You Learn Common Words

Seeing, reading and using words consistently will help them become memorable to you.

Use Sticky Notes

Choose the common English words that are most important or difficult to you. Write each word on a sticky note (like Post-it notes). Then place the sticky notes around your house or workplace.

Each time you pass one, read or say the word. Try spelling it out and using it in a sentence.

This activity will boost your memory and help you to use words in your daily conversations and writing.

Keep a Diary

Diaries help you reflect on your learning. Look back and write about moments in your day and try to use at least five or 10 common English words. Using the words you have learned helps keep them in your brain.

Writing your learning in a diary also makes you feel good! It gives you a confidence boost. It also means you have a handy notebook you can use whenever you feel stuck for words.

Play Games with Words

Learn a language game such as hangman, crosswords or Scrabble. These are popular English word games where you will encounter many common words. They help create a fun and memorable learning experience.

Be a Word Detective

Look for common English words around you every day. Look at English signs and posters. Search in newspapers and magazines. Browse the internet. Challenge yourself to see how many common English words you can find.

This activity makes you realize just how often English speakers use these words! It turns every day into an engaging English lesson.

Ask What They Mean

Do not be shy. Learning common English words is as easy as asking!

When you are in English class or talking to native English speakers, do not be afraid to ask what a word means if you do not understand it.

Ask them to repeat the pronunciation and why they used the word the way they did. Asking an English speaker directly is a great way to get helpful explanations that you will understand.


Learning the most common words in English will greatly improve your communication skills. Then you can go on to enjoy speaking, reading and writing with confidence!

And One More Thing...

If you like learning English through movies and online media, you should also check out FluentU. FluentU lets you learn English from popular talk shows, catchy music videos and funny commercials, as you can see here:


If you want to watch it, the FluentU app has probably got it.

The FluentU app and website makes it really easy to watch English videos. There are captions that are interactive. That means you can tap on any word to see an image, definition, and useful examples.


FluentU lets you learn engaging content with world famous celebrities.

For example, when you tap on the word "searching," you see this:


FluentU lets you tap to look up any word.

Learn all the vocabulary in any video with quizzes. Swipe left or right to see more examples for the word you’re learning.


FluentU helps you learn fast with useful questions and multiple examples. Learn more.

The best part? FluentU remembers the vocabulary that you’re learning. It gives you extra practice with difficult words—and reminds you when it’s time to review what you’ve learned. You have a truly personalized experience.

Start using the FluentU website on your computer or tablet or, better yet, download the FluentU app from the iTunes or Google Play store. Click here to take advantage of our current sale! (Expires at the end of this month.)

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